Translated by Francis B. Gummere (The Harvard Classics, Vol. 49. P.F. Collier & Son., 1910)
This text, including accompanying numbered notes, is from the Internet Medieval Source Book, a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history, and is intended for educational purposes and personal use only. This HTML edition, including line numbers, section divisions, and notes indicated by asterisks, is by Brian T. Murphy and is also intended for educational purposes and personal use only.
Prologue (ll. 1-85):
Prelude (1-52); I (53-85);
Part 1A: Grendel (86-1250):
I cont. (86-114); II (115-188); III (189-257); IV (258-319); V (320-370); VI (371-456); VII (457-499); VIII (500-559); IX (560-662); X (663-710); XI (711-791); XII (792-837); XIII (838-925); XIV (926-991); XV (992-1051); XVI (1052-1126); XVII (1127-1194); XVIII (1195-1254);
Part 1B: Grendel's Mum (1255-2208):
XIX (1255-1324); XX (1325-1386); XXI (1387-1477); XXII (1478-1561); XXIII (1562-1656); XXIV (1657-1752); XXV (1753-1825); XXVI (1826-1896); XXVII (1897-1971); XXVIII (1972-2007); XXIX (2008-2040); XXX (2041-2152); XXXI (2153-2229);
Part 2: The Dragon (2209-3192):
XXXII (2230-2320); XXXIII (2321-2399); XXXIV (2400-2468); XXXV (2469-2610); XXXVI (2611-2702); XXXVII (2703-2760); XXXVIII (2761-2829); XXXIX (2830-2901); XL (2902-2955); XLI (2956-3067); XLII (3068-3146); XLIII (3147-3192)
Prologue (ll. 1-85):
1. LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings
2. of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped,
3. we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!
4. Oft Scyld the Scefing from squadroned foes,
5. from many a tribe, the mead-bench tore,
6. awing the earls. Since erst he lay
7. friendless, a foundling, fate repaid him:
8. for he waxed under welkin, in wealth he throve,
9. till before him the folk, both far and near,
10. who house by the whale-path, heard his mandate,
11. gave him gifts: a good king he!
12. To him an heir was afterward born,
13. a son in his halls, whom heaven sent
14. to favor the folk, feeling their woe
15. that erst they had lacked an earl for leader
16. so long a while; the Lord endowed him,
17. the Wielder of Wonder, with world's renown.
18. Famed was this Beowulf 1 [Beow]*: far flew the boast of him,
19. son of Scyld, in the Scandian lands.
20. So becomes it a youth to quit him well
21. with his father's friends, by fee and gift,
22. that to aid him, aged, in after days,
23. come warriors willing, should war draw nigh,
24. liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds
25. shall an earl have honor in every clan.
26. Forth he fared at the fated moment,
27. sturdy Scyld to the shelter of God.
28. Then they bore him over to ocean's billow,
29. loving clansmen, as late he charged them,
30. while wielded words the winsome Scyld,
31. the leader beloved who long had ruled....
32. In the roadstead rocked a ring-dight vessel,
33. ice-flecked, outbound, atheling's barge:
34. there laid they down their darling lord
35. on the breast of the boat, the breaker-of-rings,2
36. by the mast the mighty one. Many a treasure
37. fetched from far was freighted with him.
38. No ship have I known so nobly dight
39. with weapons of war and weeds of battle,
40. with breastplate and blade: on his bosom lay
41. a heaped hoard that hence should go
42. far o'er the flood with him floating away.
43. No less these loaded the lordly gifts,
44. thanes' huge treasure, than those had done
45. who in former time forth had sent him
46. sole on the seas, a suckling child.
47. High o'er his head they hoist the standard,
48. a gold-wove banner; let billows take him,
49. gave him to ocean. Grave were their spirits,
50. mournful their mood. No man is able
51. to say in sooth, no son of the halls,
52. no hero 'neath heaven,—who harbored that freight!
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53. Now Beowulf [Beow]* bode in the burg of the Scyldings,
54. leader beloved, and long he ruled
55. in fame with all folk, since his father had gone
56. away from the world, till awoke an heir,
57. haughty Healfdene, who held through life,
58. sage and sturdy, the Scyldings glad.
59. Then, one after one, there woke to him,
60. to the chieftain of clansmen, children four:
61. Heorogar, then Hrothgar, then Halga brave;
62. and I heard that—was—'s queen,
63. the Heathoscylfing's helpmate dear.
64. To Hrothgar was given such glory of war,
65. such honor of combat, that all his kin
66. obeyed him gladly till great grew his band
67. of youthful comrades. It came in his mind
68. to bid his henchmen a hall uprear,
69. a master mead-house, mightier far
70. than ever was seen by the sons of earth,
71. and within it, then, to old and young
72. he would all allot that the Lord had sent him,
73. save only the land and the lives of his men.
74. Wide, I heard, was the work commanded,
75. for many a tribe this mid-earth round,
76. to fashion the folkstead. It fell, as he ordered,
77. in rapid achievement that ready it stood there,
78. of halls the noblest: Heorot1 he named it
79. whose message had might in many a land.
80. Not reckless of promise, the rings he dealt,
81. treasure at banquet: there towered the hall,
82. high, gabled wide, the hot surge waiting
83. of furious flame.2 Nor far was that day
84. when father and son-in-law stood in feud
85. for warfare and hatred that woke again.3
Part 1A: Grendel (86-1250):
86. With envy and anger an evil spirit
87. endured the dole in his dark abode,
88. that he heard each day the din of revel
89. high in the hall: there harps rang out,
90. clear song of the singer. He sang who knew4
91. tales of the early time of man,
92. how the Almighty made the earth,
93. fairest fields enfolded by water,
94. set, triumphant, sun and moon
95. for a light to lighten the land-dwellers,
96. and braided bright the breast of earth
97. with limbs and leaves, made life for all
98. of mortal beings that breathe and move.
99. So lived the clansmen in cheer and revel
100. a winsome life, till one began
101. to fashion evils, that field of hell.
102. Grendel this monster grim was called,
103. march-riever5 mighty, in moorland living,
104. in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
105. the hapless wight a while had kept
106. since the Creator his exile doomed.
107. On kin of Cain was the killing avenged
108. by sovran God for slaughtered Abel.
109. Ill fared his feud,6 and far was he driven,
110. for the slaughter's sake, from sight of men.
111. Of Cain awoke all that woful breed,
112. Etins7 and elves and evil-spirits,
113. as well as the giants that warred with God
114. weary while: but their wage was paid them!
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115. WENT he forth to find at fall of night
116. that haughty house, and heed wherever
117. the Ring-Danes, outrevelled, to rest had gone.
118. Found within it the atheling band
119. asleep after feasting and fearless of sorrow,
120. of human hardship. Unhallowed wight,
121. grim and greedy, he grasped betimes,
122. wrathful, reckless, from resting-places,
123. thirty of the thanes, and thence he rushed
124. fain of his fell spoil, faring homeward,
125. laden with slaughter, his lair to seek.
126. Then at the dawning, as day was breaking,
127. the might of Grendel to men was known;
128. then after wassail was wail uplifted,
129. loud moan in the morn. The mighty chief,
130. atheling excellent, unblithe sat,
131. labored in woe for the loss of his thanes,
132. when once had been traced the trail of the fiend,
133. spirit accurst: too cruel that sorrow,
134. too long, too loathsome. Not late the respite;
135. with night returning, anew began
136. ruthless murder; he recked no whit,
137. firm in his guilt, of the feud and crime.
138. They were easy to find who elsewhere sought
139. in room remote their rest at night,
140. bed in the bowers,1 when that bale was shown,
141. was seen in sooth, with surest token,—
142. the hall-thane's2 hate. Such held themselves
143. far and fast who the fiend outran!
144. Thus ruled unrighteous and raged his fill
145. one against all; until empty stood
146. that lordly building, and long it bode so.
147. Twelve years' tide the trouble he bore,
148. sovran of Scyldings, sorrows in plenty,
149. boundless cares. There came unhidden
150. tidings true to the tribes of men,
151. in sorrowful songs, how ceaselessly Grendel
152. harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him,
153. what murder and massacre, many a year,
154. feud unfading,—refused consent
155. to deal with any of Daneland's earls,
156. make pact of peace, or compound for gold:
157. still less did the wise men ween to get
158. great fee for the feud from his fiendish hands.
159. But the evil one ambushed old and young
160. death-shadow dark, and dogged them still,
161. lured, or lurked in the livelong night
162. of misty moorlands: men may say not
163. where the haunts of these Hell-Runes3 be.
164. Such heaping of horrors the hater of men,
165. lonely roamer, wrought unceasing,
166. harassings heavy. O'er Heorot he lorded,
167. gold-bright hall, in gloomy nights;
168. and ne'er could the prince4 approach his throne,
169. —'twas judgment of God,—or have joy in his hall.
170. Sore was the sorrow to Scyldings'-friend,
171. heart-rending misery. Many nobles
172. sat assembled, and searched out counsel
173. how it were best for bold-hearted men
174. against harassing terror to try their hand.
175. Whiles they vowed in their heathen fanes
176. altar-offerings, asked with words5
177. that the slayer-of-souls would succor give them
178. for the pain of their people. Their practice this,
179. their heathen hope; 'twas Hell they thought of
180. in mood of their mind. Almighty they knew not,
181. Doomsman of Deeds and dreadful Lord,
182. nor Heaven's-Helmet heeded they ever,
183. Wielder-of-Wonder.—Woe for that man
184. who in harm and hatred hales his soul
185. to fiery embraces;—nor favor nor change
186. awaits he ever. But well for him
187. that after death-day may draw to his Lord,
188. and friendship find in the Father's arms!
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189. THUS seethed unceasing the son of Healfdene
190. with the woe of these days; not wisest men
191. assuaged his sorrow; too sore the anguish,
192. loathly and long, that lay on his folk,
193. most baneful of burdens and bales of the night.
194. This heard in his home Hygelac's thane,
195. great among Geats, of Grendel's doings.
196. He was the mightiest man of valor
197. in that same day of this our life,
198. stalwart and stately. A stout wave-walker
199. he bade make ready. Yon battle-king, said he,
200. far o'er the swan-road he fain would seek,
201. the noble monarch who needed men!
202. The prince's journey by prudent folk
203. was little blamed, though they loved him dear;
204. they whetted the hero, and hailed good omens.
205. And now the bold one from bands of Geats
206. comrades chose, the keenest of warriors
207. e'er he could find; with fourteen men
208. the sea-wood1 he sought, and, sailor proved,
209. led them on to the land's confines.
210. Time had now flown;2 afloat was the ship,
211. boat under bluff. On board they climbed,
212. warriors ready; waves were churning
213. sea with sand; the sailors bore
214. on the breast of the bark their bright array,
215. their mail and weapons: the men pushed off,
216. on its willing way, the well-braced craft.
217. Then moved o'er the waters by might of the wind
218. that bark like a bird with breast of foam,
219. till in season due, on the second day,
220. the curved prow such course had run
221. that sailors now could see the land,
222. sea-cliffs shining, steep high hills,
223. headlands broad. Their haven was found,
224. their journey ended. Up then quickly
225. the Weders'3 clansmen climbed ashore,
226. anchored their sea-wood, with armor clashing
227. and gear of battle: God they thanked
228. for passing in peace o'er the paths of the sea.
229. Now saw from the cliff a Scylding clansman,
230. a warden that watched the water-side,
231. how they bore o'er the gangway glittering shields,
232. war-gear in readiness; wonder seized him
233. to know what manner of men they were.
234. Straight to the strand his steed he rode,
235. Hrothgar's henchman; with hand of might
236. he shook his spear, and spake in parley.
237. "Who are ye, then, ye armed men,
238. mailed folk, that yon mighty vessel
239. have urged thus over the ocean ways,
240. here o'er the waters? A warden I,
241. sentinel set o'er the sea-march here,
242. lest any foe to the folk of Danes
243. with harrying fleet should harm the land.
244. No aliens ever at ease thus bore them,
245. linden-wielders:4 yet word-of-leave
246. clearly ye lack from clansmen here,
247. my folk's agreement.—A greater ne'er saw I
248. of warriors in world than is one of you,—
249. yon hero in harness! No henchman he
250. worthied by weapons, if witness his features,
251. his peerless presence! I pray you, though, tell
252. your folk and home, lest hence ye fare
253. suspect to wander your way as spies
254. in Danish land. Now, dwellers afar,
255. ocean-travellers, take from me
256. simple advice: the sooner the better
257. I hear of the country whence ye came."
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258. To him the stateliest spake in answer;
259. the warriors' leader his word-hoard unlocked:—
260. "We are by kin of the clan of Geats,
261. and Hygelac's own hearth-fellows we.
262. To folk afar was my father known,
263. noble atheling, Ecgtheow named.
264. Full of winters, he fared away
265. aged from earth; he is honored still
266. through width of the world by wise men all.
267. To thy lord and liege in loyal mood
268. we hasten hither, to Healfdene's son,
269. people-protector: be pleased to advise us!
270. To that mighty-one come we on mickle errand,
271. to the lord of the Danes; nor deem I right
272. that aught be hidden. We hear—thou knowest
273. if sooth it is—the saying of men,
274. that amid the Scyldings a scathing monster,
275. dark ill-doer, in dusky nights
276. shows terrific his rage unmatched,
277. hatred and murder. To Hrothgar I
278. in greatness of soul would succor bring,
279. so the Wise-and-Brave1 may worst his foes,—
280. if ever the end of ills is fated,
281. of cruel contest, if cure shall follow,
282. and the boiling care-waves cooler grow;
283. else ever afterward anguish-days
284. he shall suffer in sorrow while stands in place
285. high on its hill that house unpeered!"
286. Astride his steed, the strand-ward answered,
287. clansman unquailing: "The keen-souled thane
288. must be skilled to sever and sunder duly
289. words and works, if he well intends.
290. I gather, this band is graciously bent
291. to the Scyldings' master. March, then, bearing
292. weapons and weeds the way I show you.
293. I will bid my men your boat meanwhile
294. to guard for fear lest foemen come,—
295. your new-tarred ship by shore of ocean
296. faithfully watching till once again
297. it waft o'er the waters those well-loved thanes,
298. —winding-neck'd wood,—to Weders' bounds,
299. heroes such as the hest of fate
300. shall succor and save from the shock of war."
301. They bent them to march,—the boat lay still,
302. fettered by cable and fast at anchor,
303. broad-bosomed ship.—Then shone the boars2
304. over the cheek-guard; chased with gold,
305. keen and gleaming, guard it kept
306. o'er the man of war, as marched along
307. heroes in haste, till the hall they saw,
308. broad of gable and bright with gold:
309. that was the fairest, 'mid folk of earth,
310. of houses 'neath heaven, where Hrothgar lived,
311. and the gleam of it lightened o'er lands afar.
312. The sturdy shieldsman showed that bright
313. burg-of-the-boldest; bade them go
314. straightway thither; his steed then turned,
315. hardy hero, and hailed them thus:—
316. "Tis time that I fare from you. Father Almighty
317. in grace and mercy guard you well,
318. safe in your seekings. Seaward I go,
319. 'gainst hostile warriors hold my watch."
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320. STONE-BRIGHT the street:1 it showed the way
321. to the crowd of clansmen. Corselets glistened
322. hand-forged, hard; on their harness bright
323. the steel ring sang, as they strode along
324. in mail of battle, and marched to the hall.
325. There, weary of ocean, the wall along
326. they set their bucklers, their broad shields, down,
327. and bowed them to bench: the breastplates clanged,
328. war-gear of men; their weapons stacked,
329. spears of the seafarers stood together,
330. gray-tipped ash: that iron band
331. was worthily weaponed!—A warrior proud
332. asked of the heroes their home and kin.
333. "Whence, now, bear ye burnished shields,
334. harness gray and helmets grim,
335. spears in multitude? Messenger, I,
336. Hrothgar's herald! Heroes so many
337. ne'er met I as strangers of mood so strong.
338. 'Tis plain that for prowess, not plunged into exile,
339. for high-hearted valor, Hrothgar ye seek!"
340. Him the sturdy-in-war bespake with words,
341. proud earl of the Weders answer made,
342. hardy 'neath helmet:—"Hygelac's, we,
343. fellows at board; I am Beowulf named.
344. I am seeking to say to the son of Healfdene
345. this mission of mine, to thy master-lord,
346. the doughty prince, if he deign at all
347. grace that we greet him, the good one, now."
348. Wulfgar spake, the Wendles' chieftain,
349. whose might of mind to many was known,
350. his courage and counsel: "The king of Danes,
351. the Scyldings' friend, I fain will tell,
352. the Breaker-of-Rings, as the boon thou askest,
353. the famed prince, of thy faring hither,
354. and, swiftly after, such answer bring
355. as the doughty monarch may deign to give."
356. Hied then in haste to where Hrothgar sat
357. white-haired and old, his earls about him,
358. till the stout thane stood at the shoulder there
359. of the Danish king: good courtier he!
360. Wulfgar spake to his winsome lord:—
361. "Hither have fared to thee far-come men
362. o'er the paths of ocean, people of Geatland;
363. and the stateliest there by his sturdy band
364. is Beowulf named. This boon they seek,
365. that they, my master, may with thee
366. have speech at will: nor spurn their prayer
367. to give them hearing, gracious Hrothgar!
368. In weeds of the warrior worthy they,
369. methinks, of our liking; their leader most surely,
370. a hero that hither his henchmen has led."
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371. HROTHGAR answered, helmet of Scyldings:—
372. "I knew him of yore in his youthful days;
373. his aged father was Ecgtheow named,
374. to whom, at home, gave Hrethel the Geat
375. his only daughter. Their offspring bold
376. fares hither to seek the steadfast friend.
377. And seamen, too, have said me this,—
378. who carried my gifts to the Geatish court,
379. thither for thanks,—he has thirty men's
380. heft of grasp in the gripe of his hand,
381. the bold-in-battle. Blessed God
382. out of his mercy this man hath sent
383. to Danes of the West, as I ween indeed,
384. against horror of Grendel. I hope to give
385. the good youth gold for his gallant thought.
386. Be thou in haste, and bid them hither,
387. clan of kinsmen, to come before me;
388. and add this word,—they are welcome guests
389. to folk of the Danes."
390. [To the door of the hall
391. Wulfgar went] and the word declared:—
392. "To you this message my master sends,
393. East-Danes' king, that your kin he knows,
394. hardy heroes, and hails you all
395. welcome hither o'er waves of the sea!
396. Ye may wend your way in war-attire,
397. and under helmets Hrothgar greet;
398. but let here the battle-shields bide your parley,
399. and wooden war-shafts wait its end."
400. Uprose the mighty one, ringed with his men,
401. brave band of thanes: some bode without,
402. battle-gear guarding, as bade the chief.
403. Then hied that troop where the herald led them,
404. under Heorot's roof: [the hero strode,]
405. hardy 'neath helm, till the hearth he neared.
406. Beowulf spake,—his breastplate gleamed,
407. war-net woven by wit of the smith:—
408. "Thou Hrothgar, hail! Hygelac's I,
409. kinsman and follower. Fame a plenty
410. have I gained in youth! These Grendel-deeds
411. I heard in my home-land heralded clear.
412. Seafarers say how stands this hall,
413. of buildings best, for your band of thanes
414. empty and idle, when evening sun
415. in the harbor of heaven is hidden away.
416. So my vassals advised me well,—
417. brave and wise, the best of men,—
418. O sovran Hrothgar, to seek thee here,
419. for my nerve and my might they knew full well.
420. Themselves had seen me from slaughter come
421. blood-flecked from foes, where five I bound,
422. and that wild brood worsted. I' the waves I slew
423. nicors1 by night, in need and peril
424. avenging the Weders,2 whose woe they sought,—
425. crushing the grim ones. Grendel now,
426. monster cruel, be mine to quell
427. in single battle! So, from thee,
428. thou sovran of the Shining-Danes,
429. Scyldings'-bulwark, a boon I seek,—
430. and, Friend-of-the-folk, refuse it not,
431. O Warriors'-shield, now I've wandered far,—
432. that I alone with my liegemen here,
433. this hardy band, may Heorot purge!
434. More I hear, that the monster dire,
435. in his wanton mood, of weapons recks not;
436. hence shall I scorn—so Hygelac stay,
437. king of my kindred, kind to me!—
438. brand or buckler to bear in the fight,
439. gold-colored targe: but with gripe alone
440. must I front the fiend and fight for life,
441. foe against foe. Then faith be his
442. in the doom of the Lord whom death shall take.
443. Fain, I ween, if the fight he win,
444. in this hall of gold my Geatish band
445. will he fearless eat,—as oft before,—
446. my noblest thanes. Nor need'st thou then
447. to hide my head;3 for his shall I be,
448. dyed in gore, if death must take me;
449. and my blood-covered body he'll bear as prey,
450. ruthless devour it, the roamer-lonely,
451. with my life-blood redden his lair in the fen:
452. no further for me need'st food prepare!
453. To Hygelac send, if Hild4 should take me,
454. best of war-weeds, warding my breast,
455. armor excellent, heirloom of Hrethel
456. and work of Wayland.5 Fares Wyrd6 as she must."
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457. HROTHGAR spake, the Scyldings'-helmet:—
458. "For fight defensive, Friend my Beowulf,
459. to succor and save, thou hast sought us here.
460. Thy father's combat1 a feud enkindled
461. when Heatholaf with hand he slew
462. among the Wylfings; his Weder kin
463. for horror of fighting feared to hold him.
464. Fleeing, he sought our South-Dane folk,
465. over surge of ocean the Honor-Scyldings,
466. when first I was ruling the folk of Danes,
467. wielded, youthful, this widespread realm,
468. this hoard-hold of heroes. Heorogar was dead,
469. my elder brother, had breathed his last,
470. Healfdene's bairn: he was better than I!
471. Straightway the feud with fee2 I settled,
472. to the Wylfings sent, o'er watery ridges,
473. treasures olden: oaths he3 swore me.
474. Sore is my soul to say to any
475. of the race of man what ruth for me
476. in Heorot Grendel with hate hath wrought,
477. what sudden harryings. Hall-folk fail me,
478. my warriors wane; for Wyrd hath swept them
479. into Grendel's grasp. But God is able
480. this deadly foe from his deeds to turn!
481. Boasted full oft, as my beer they drank,
482. earls o'er the ale-cup, armed men,
483. that they would bide in the beer-hall here,
484. Grendel's attack with terror of blades.
485. Then was this mead-house at morning tide
486. dyed with gore, when the daylight broke,
487. all the boards of the benches blood-besprinkled,
488. gory the hall: I had heroes the less,
489. doughty dear-ones that death had reft.
490. —But sit to the banquet, unbind thy words,
491. hardy hero, as heart shall prompt thee."
492. Gathered together, the Geatish men
493. in the banquet-hall on bench assigned,
494. sturdy-spirited, sat them down,
495. hardy-hearted. A henchman attended,
496. carried the carven cup in hand,
497. served the clear mead. Oft minstrels sang
498. blithe in Heorot. Heroes revelled,
499. no dearth of warriors, Weder and Dane.
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500. UNFERTH spake, the son of Ecglaf,
501. who sat at the feet of the Scyldings' lord,
502. unbound the battle-runes.1 —Beowulf's quest,
503. sturdy seafarer's, sorely galled him;
504. ever he envied that other men
505. should more achieve in middle-earth
506. of fame under heaven than he himself.—
507. "Art thou that Beowulf, Breca's rival,
508. who emulous swam on the open sea,
509. when for pride the pair of you proved the floods,
510. and wantonly dared in waters deep
511. to risk your lives? No living man,
512. or lief or loath, from your labor dire
513. could you dissuade, from swimming the main.
514. Ocean-tides with your arms ye covered,
515. with strenuous hands the sea-streets measured,
516. swam o'er the waters. Winter's storm
517. rolled the rough waves. In realm of sea
518. a sennight strove ye. In swimming he topped thee,
519. had more of main! Him at morning-tide
520. billows bore to the Battling Reamas,
521. whence he hied to his home so dear
522. beloved of his liegemen, to land of Brondings,
523. fastness fair, where his folk he ruled,
524. town and treasure. In triumph o'er thee
525. Beanstan's bairn2 his boast achieved.
526. So ween I for thee a worse adventure
527. —though in buffet of battle thou brave hast been,
528. in struggle grim,—if Grendel's approach
529. thou darst await through the watch of night!"
530. Beowulf spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:—
531. "What a deal hast uttered, dear my Unferth,
532. drunken with beer, of Breca now,
533. told of his triumph! Truth I claim it,
534. that I had more of might in the sea
535. than any man else, more ocean-endurance.
536. We twain had talked, in time of youth,
537. and made our boast,—we were merely boys,
538. striplings still,—to stake our lives
539. far at sea: and so we performed it.
540. Naked swords, as we swam along,
541. we held in hand, with hope to guard us
542. against the whales. Not a whit from me
543. could he float afar o'er the flood of waves,
544. haste o'er the billows; nor him I abandoned.
545. Together we twain on the tides abode
546. five nights full till the flood divided us,
547. churning waves and chillest weather,
548. darkling night, and the northern wind
549. ruthless rushed on us: rough was the surge.
550. Now the wrath of the sea-fish rose apace;
551. yet me 'gainst the monsters my mailed coat,
552. hard and hand-linked, help afforded,—
553. battle-sark braided my breast to ward,
554. garnished with gold. There grasped me firm
555. and haled me to bottom the hated foe,
556. with grimmest gripe. 'Twas granted me, though,
557. to pierce the monster with point of sword,
558. with blade of battle: huge beast of the sea
559. was whelmed by the hurly through hand of mine.
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560. ME thus often the evil monsters
561. thronging threatened. With thrust of my sword,
562. the darling, I dealt them due return!
563. Nowise had they bliss from their booty then
564. to devour their victim, vengeful creatures,
565. seated to banquet at bottom of sea;
566. but at break of day, by my brand sore hurt,
567. on the edge of ocean up they lay,
568. put to sleep by the sword. And since, by them
569. on the fathomless sea-ways sailor-folk
570. are never molested.—Light from east,
571. came bright God's beacon; the billows sank,
572. so that I saw the sea-cliffs high,
573. windy walls. For Wyrd oft saveth
574. earl undoomed if he doughty be!
575. And so it came that I killed with my sword
576. nine of the nicors. Of night-fought battles
577. ne'er heard I a harder 'neath heaven's dome,
578. nor adrift on the deep a more desolate man!
579. Yet I came unharmed from that hostile clutch,
580. though spent with swimming. The sea upbore me,
581. flood of the tide, on Finnish land,
582. the welling waters. No wise of thee
583. have I heard men tell such terror of falchions,
584. bitter battle. Breca ne'er yet,
585. not one of you pair, in the play of war
586. such daring deed has done at all
587. with bloody brand,—I boast not of it!—
588. though thou wast the bane1 of thy brethren dear,
589. thy closest kin, whence curse of hell
590. awaits thee, well as thy wit may serve!
591. For I say in sooth, thou son of Ecglaf,
592. never had Grendel these grim deeds wrought,
593. monster dire, on thy master dear,
594. in Heorot such havoc, if heart of thine
595. were as battle-bold as thy boast is loud!
596. But he has found no feud will happen;
597. from sword-clash dread of your Danish clan
598. he vaunts him safe, from the Victor-Scyldings.
599. He forces pledges, favors none
600. of the land of Danes, but lustily murders,
601. fights and feasts, nor feud he dreads
602. from Spear-Dane men. But speedily now
603. shall I prove him the prowess and pride of the Geats,
604. shall bid him battle. Blithe to mead
605. go he that listeth, when light of dawn
606. this morrow morning o'er men of earth,
607. ether-robed sun from the south shall beam!"
608. Joyous then was the Jewel-giver,
609. hoar-haired, war-brave; help awaited
610. the Bright-Danes' prince, from Beowulf hearing,
611. folk's good shepherd, such firm resolve.
612. Then was laughter of liegemen loud resounding
613. with winsome words. Came Wealhtheow forth,
614. queen of Hrothgar, heedful of courtesy,
615. gold-decked, greeting the guests in hall;
616. and the high-born lady handed the cup
617. first to the East-Danes' heir and warden,
618. bade him be blithe at the beer-carouse,
619. the land's beloved one. Lustily took he
620. banquet and beaker, battle-famed king.
621. Through the hall then went the Helmings' Lady,
622. to younger and older everywhere
623. carried the cup, till come the moment
624. when the ring-graced queen, the royal-hearted,
625. to Beowulf bore the beaker of mead.
626. She greeted the Geats' lord, God she thanked,
627. in wisdom's words, that her will was granted,
628. that at last on a hero her hope could lean
629. for comfort in terrors. The cup he took,
630. hardy-in-war, from Wealhtheow's hand,
631. and answer uttered the eager-for-combat.
632. Beowulf spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:—
633. "This was my thought, when my thanes and I
634. bent to the ocean and entered our boat,
635. that I would work the will of your people
636. fully, or fighting fall in death,
637. in fiend's gripe fast. I am firm to do
638. an earl's brave deed, or end the days
639. of this life of mine in the mead-hall here."
640. Well these words to the woman seemed,
641. Beowulf's battle-boast.—Bright with gold
642. the stately dame by her spouse sat down.
643. Again, as erst, began in hall
644. warriors' wassail and words of power,
645. the proud-band's revel, till presently
646. the son of Healfdene hastened to seek
647. rest for the night; he knew there waited
648. fight for the fiend in that festal hall,
649. when the sheen of the sun they saw no more,
650. and dusk of night sank darkling nigh,
651. and shadowy shapes came striding on,
652. wan under welkin. The warriors rose.
653. Man to man, he made harangue,
654. Hrothgar to Beowulf, bade him hail,
655. let him wield the wine hall: a word he added:—
656. "Never to any man erst I trusted,
657. since I could heave up hand and shield,
658. this noble Dane-Hall, till now to thee.
659. Have now and hold this house unpeered;
660. remember thy glory; thy might declare;
661. watch for the foe! No wish shall fail thee
662. if thou bidest the battle with bold-won life."
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663. THEN Hrothgar went with his hero-train,
664. defence-of-Scyldings, forth from hall;
665. fain would the war-lord Wealhtheow seek,
666. couch of his queen. The King-of-Glory
667. against this Grendel a guard had set,
668. so heroes heard, a hall-defender,
669. who warded the monarch and watched for the monster.
670. In truth, the Geats' prince gladly trusted
671. his mettle, his might, the mercy of God!
672. Cast off then his corselet of iron,
673. helmet from head; to his henchman gave,—
674. choicest of weapons,—the well-chased sword,
675. bidding him guard the gear of battle.
676. Spake then his Vaunt the valiant man,
677. Beowulf Geat, ere the bed be sought:—
678. "Of force in fight no feebler I count me,
679. in grim war-deeds, than Grendel deems him.
680. Not with the sword, then, to sleep of death
681. his life will I give, though it lie in my power.
682. No skill is his to strike against me,
683. my shield to hew though he hardy be,
684. bold in battle; we both, this night,
685. shall spurn the sword, if he seek me here,
686. unweaponed, for war. Let wisest God,
687. sacred Lord, on which side soever
688. doom decree as he deemeth right."
689. Reclined then the chieftain, and cheek-pillows held
690. the head of the earl, while all about him
691. seamen hardy on hall-beds sank.
692. None of them thought that thence their steps
693. to the folk and fastness that fostered them,
694. to the land they loved, would lead them back!
695. Full well they wist that on warriors many
696. battle-death seized, in the banquet-hall,
697. of Danish clan. But comfort and help,
698. war-weal weaving, to Weder folk
699. the Master gave, that, by might of one,
700. over their enemy all prevailed,
701. by single strength. In sooth 'tis told
702. that highest God o'er human kind
703. hath wielded ever!—Thro' wan night striding,
704. came the walker-in-shadow. Warriors slept
705. whose hest was to guard the gabled hall,—
706. all save one. 'Twas widely known
707. that against God's will the ghostly ravager
708. him1 could not hurl to haunts of darkness;
709. wakeful, ready, with warrior's wrath,
710. bold he bided the battle's issue.
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711. THEN from the moorland, by misty crags,
712. with God's wrath laden, Grendel came.
713. The monster was minded of mankind now
714. sundry to seize in the stately house.
715. Under welkin he walked, till the wine-palace there,
716. gold-hall of men, he gladly discerned,
717. flashing with fretwork. Not first time, this,
718. that he the home of Hrothgar sought,—
719. yet ne'er in his life-day, late or early,
720. such hardy heroes, such hall-thanes, found!
721. To the house the warrior walked apace,
722. parted from peace;1 the portal opened,
723. though with forged bolts fast, when his fists had struck it,
724. and baleful he burst in his blatant rage,
725. the house's mouth. All hastily, then,
726. o'er fair-paved floor the fiend trod on,
727. ireful he strode; there streamed from his eyes
728. fearful flashes, like flame to see.
729. He spied in hall the hero-band,
730. kin and clansmen clustered asleep,
731. hardy liegemen. Then laughed his heart;
732. for the monster was minded, ere morn should dawn,
733. savage, to sever the soul of each,
734. life from body, since lusty banquet
735. waited his will! But Wyrd forbade him
736. to seize any more of men on earth
737. after that evening. Eagerly watched
738. Hygelac's kinsman his cursed foe,
739. how he would fare in fell attack.
740. Not that the monster was minded to pause!
741. Straightway he seized a sleeping warrior
742. for the first, and tore him fiercely asunder,
743. the bone-frame bit, drank blood in streams,
744. swallowed him piecemeal: swiftly thus
745. the lifeless corse was clear devoured,
746. e'en feet and hands. Then farther he hied;
747. for the hardy hero with hand he grasped,
748. felt for the foe with fiendish claw,
749. for the hero reclining,—who clutched it boldly,
750. prompt to answer, propped on his arm.
751. Soon then saw that shepherd-of-evils
752. that never he met in this middle-world,
753. in the ways of earth, another wight
754. with heavier hand-gripe; at heart he feared,
755. sorrowed in soul,—none the sooner escaped!
756. Fain would he flee, his fastness seek,
757. the den of devils: no doings now
758. such as oft he had done in days of old!
759. Then bethought him the hardy Hygelac-thane
760. of his boast at evening: up he bounded,
761. grasped firm his foe, whose fingers cracked.
762. The fiend made off, but the earl close followed.
763. The monster meant—if he might at all—
764. to fling himself free, and far away
765. fly to the fens,—knew his fingers' power
766. in the gripe of the grim one. Gruesome march
767. to Heorot this monster of harm had made!
768. Din filled the room; the Danes were bereft,
769. castle-dwellers and clansmen all,
770. earls, of their ale. Angry were both
771. those savage hall-guards: the house resounded.
772. Wonder it was the wine-hall firm
773. in the strain of their struggle stood, to earth
774. the fair house fell not; too fast it was
775. within and without by its iron bands
776. craftily clamped; though there crashed from sill
777. many a mead-bench—men have told me—
778. gay with gold, where the grim foes wrestled.
779. So well had weened the wisest Scyldings
780. that not ever at all might any man
781. that bone-decked, brave house break asunder,
782. crush by craft,—unless clasp of fire
783. in smoke engulfed it.—Again uprose
784. din redoubled. Danes of the North
785. with fear and frenzy were filled, each one,
786. who from the wall that wailing heard,
787. God's foe sounding his grisly song,
788. cry of the conquered, clamorous pain
789. from captive of hell. Too closely held him
790. he who of men in might was strongest
791. in that same day of this our life.
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792. NOT in any wise would the earls'-defence1
793. suffer that slaughterous stranger to live,
794. useless deeming his days and years
795. to men on earth. Now many an earl
796. of Beowulf brandished blade ancestral,
797. fain the life of their lord to shield,
798. their praised prince, if power were theirs;
799. never they knew,—as they neared the foe,
800. hardy-hearted heroes of war,
801. aiming their swords on every side
802. the accursed to kill,—no keenest blade,
803. no farest of falchions fashioned on earth,
804. could harm or hurt that hideous fiend!
805. He was safe, by his spells, from sword of battle,
806. from edge of iron. Yet his end and parting
807. on that same day of this our life
808. woful should be, and his wandering soul
809. far off flit to the fiends' domain.
810. Soon he found, who in former days,
811. harmful in heart and hated of God,
812. on many a man such murder wrought,
813. that the frame of his body failed him now.
814. For him the keen-souled kinsman of Hygelac
815. held in hand; hateful alive
816. was each to other. The outlaw dire
817. took mortal hurt; a mighty wound
818. showed on his shoulder, and sinews cracked,
819. and the bone-frame burst. To Beowulf now
820. the glory was given, and Grendel thence
821. death-sick his den in the dark moor sought,
822. noisome abode: he knew too well
823. that here was the last of life, an end
824. of his days on earth.—To all the Danes
825. by that bloody battle the boon had come.
826. From ravage had rescued the roving stranger
827. Hrothgar's hall; the hardy and wise one
828. had purged it anew. His night-work pleased him,
829. his deed and its honor. To Eastern Danes
830. had the valiant Geat his vaunt made good,
831. all their sorrow and ills assuaged,
832. their bale of battle borne so long,
833. and all the dole they erst endured
834. pain a-plenty.—'Twas proof of this,
835. when the hardy-in-fight a hand laid down,
836. arm and shoulder,—all, indeed,
837. of Grendel's gripe,—'neath the gabled roof·
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838. MANY at morning, as men have told me,
839. warriors gathered the gift-hall round,
840. folk-leaders faring from far and near,
841. o'er wide-stretched ways, the wonder to view,
842. trace of the traitor. Not troublous seemed
843. the enemy's end to any man
844. who saw by the gait of the graceless foe
845. how the weary-hearted, away from thence,
846. baffled in battle and banned, his steps
847. death-marked dragged to the devils' mere.
848. Bloody the billows were boiling there,
849. turbid the tide of tumbling waves
850. horribly seething, with sword-blood hot,
851. by that doomed one dyed, who in den of the moor
852. laid forlorn his life adown,
853. his heathen soul,-and hell received it.
854. Home then rode the hoary clansmen
855. from that merry journey, and many a youth,
856. on horses white, the hardy warriors,
857. back from the mere. Then Beowulf's glory
858. eager they echoed, and all averred
859. that from sea to sea, or south or north,
860. there was no other in earth's domain,
861. under vault of heaven, more valiant found,
862. of warriors none more worthy to rule!
863. (On their lord beloved they laid no slight,
864. gracious Hrothgar: a good king he!)
865. From time to time, the tried-in-battle
866. their gray steeds set to gallop amain,
867. and ran a race when the road seemed fair.
868. From time to time, a thane of the king,
869. who had made many vaunts, and was mindful of verses,
870. stored with sagas and songs of old,
871. bound word to word in well-knit rime,
872. welded his lay; this warrior soon
873. of Beowulf's quest right cleverly sang,
874. and artfully added an excellent tale,
875. in well-ranged words, of the warlike deeds
876. he had heard in saga of Sigemund.
877. Strange the story: he said it all,—
878. the Waelsing's wanderings wide, his struggles,
879. which never were told to tribes of men,
880. the feuds and the frauds, save to Fitela only,
881. when of these doings he deigned to speak,
882. uncle to nephew; as ever the twain
883. stood side by side in stress of war,
884. and multitude of the monster kind
885. they had felled with their swords. Of Sigemund grew,
886. when he passed from life, no little praise;
887. for the doughty-in-combat a dragon killed
888. that herded the hoard:1 under hoary rock
889. the atheling dared the deed alone
890. fearful quest, nor was Fitela there.
891. Yet so it befell, his falchion pierced
892. that wondrous worm,—on the wall it struck,
893. best blade; the dragon died in its blood.
894. Thus had the dread-one by daring achieved
895. over the ring-hoard to rule at will,
896. himself to pleasure; a sea-boat he loaded,
897. and bore on its bosom the beaming gold,
898. son of Waels; the worm was consumed.
899. He had of all heroes the highest renown
900. among races of men, this refuge-of-warriors,
901. for deeds of daring that decked his name
902. since the hand and heart of Heremod
903. grew slack in battle. He, swiftly banished
904. to mingle with monsters at mercy of foes,
905. to death was betrayed; for torrents of sorrow
906. had lamed him too long; a load of care
907. to earls and athelings all he proved.
908. Oft indeed, in earlier days,
909. for the warrior's wayfaring wise men mourned,
910. who had hoped of him help from harm and bale,
911. and had thought their sovran's son would thrive,
912. follow his father, his folk protect,
913. the hoard and the stronghold, heroes' land,
914. home of Scyldings.—But here, thanes said,
915. the kinsman of Hygelac kinder seemed
916. to all: the other2 was urged to crime!
917. And afresh to the race,3 the fallow roads
918. by swift steeds measured! The morning sun
919. was climbing higher. Clansmen hastened
920. to the high-built hall, those hardy-minded,
921. the wonder to witness. Warden of treasure,
922. crowned with glory, the king himself,
923. with stately band from the bride-bower strode;
924. and with him the queen and her crowd of maidens
925. measured the path to the mead-house fair.
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926. HROTHGAR spake,—to the hall he went,
927. stood by the steps, the steep roof saw,
928. garnished with gold, and Grendel's hand:—
929. "For the sight I see to the Sovran Ruler
930. be speedy thanks! A throng of sorrows
931. I have borne from Grendel; but God still works
932. wonder on wonder, the Warden-of-Glory.
933. It was but now that I never more
934. for woes that weighed on me waited help
935. long as I lived, when, laved in blood,
936. stood sword-gore-stained this stateliest house,—
937. widespread woe for wise men all,
938. who had no hope to hinder ever
939. foes infernal and fiendish sprites
940. from havoc in hall. This hero now,
941. by the Wielder's might, a work has done
942. that not all of us erst could ever do
943. by wile and wisdom. Lo, well can she say
944. whoso of women this warrior bore
945. among sons of men, if still she liveth,
946. that the God of the ages was good to her
947. in the birth of her bairn. Now, Beowulf, thee,
948. of heroes best, I shall heartily love
949. as mine own, my son; preserve thou ever
950. this kinship new: thou shalt never lack
951. wealth of the world that I wield as mine!
952. Full oft for less have I largess showered,
953. my precious hoard, on a punier man,
954. less stout in struggle. Thyself hast now
955. fulfilled such deeds, that thy fame shall endure
956. through all the ages. As ever he did,
957. well may the Wielder reward thee still!"
958. Beowulf spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:—
959. "This work of war most willingly
960. we have fought, this fight, and fearlessly dared
961. force of the foe. Fain, too, were I
962. hadst thou but seen himself, what time
963. the fiend in his trappings tottered to fall!
964. Swiftly, I thought, in strongest gripe
965. on his bed of death to bind him down,
966. that he in the hent of this hand of mine
967. should breathe his last: but he broke away.
968. Him I might not—the Maker willed not—
969. hinder from flight, and firm enough hold
970. the life-destroyer: too sturdy was he,
971. the ruthless, in running! For rescue, however,
972. he left behind him his hand in pledge,
973. arm and shoulder; nor aught of help
974. could the cursed one thus procure at all.
975. None the longer liveth he, loathsome fiend,
976. sunk in his sins, but sorrow holds him
977. tightly grasped in gripe of anguish,
978. in baleful bonds, where bide he must,
979. evil outlaw, such awful doom
980. as the Mighty Maker shall mete him out."
981. More silent seemed the son of Ecglaf1
982. in boastful speech of his battle-deeds,
983. since athelings all, through the earl's great prowess,
984. beheld that hand, on the high roof gazing,
985. foeman's fingers,—the forepart of each
986. of the sturdy nails to steel was likest,—
987. heathen's "hand-spear," hostile warrior's
988. claw uncanny. 'Twas clear, they said,
989. that him no blade of the brave could touch,
990. how keen soever, or cut away
991. that battle-hand bloody from baneful foe.
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992. THERE was hurry and hest in Heorot now
993. for hands to bedeck it, and dense was the throng
994. of men and women the wine-hall to cleanse,
995. the guest-room to garnish. Gold-gay shone the hangings
996. that were wove on the wall, and wonders many
997. to delight each mortal that looks upon them.
998. Though braced within by iron bands,
999. that building bright was broken sorely;1
1000. rent were its hinges; the roof alone
1001. held safe and sound, when, seared with crime,
1002. the fiendish foe his flight essayed,
1003. of life despairing.—No light thing that,
1004. the flight for safety,—essay it who will!
1005. Forced of fate, he shall find his way
1006. to the refuge ready for race of man,
1007. for soul-possessors, and sons of earth;
1008. and there his body on bed of death
1009. shall rest after revel.
1010. Arrived was the hour
1011. when to hall proceeded Healfdene's son:
1012. the king himself would sit to banquet.
1013. Ne'er heard I of host in haughtier throng
1014. more graciously gathered round giver-of-rings!
1015. Bowed then to bench those bearers-of-glory,
1016. fain of the feasting. Featly received
1017. many a mead-cup the mighty-in-spirit,
1018. kinsmen who sat in the sumptuous hall,
1019. Hrothgar and Hrothulf. Heorot now
1020. was filled with friends; the folk of Scyldings
1021. ne'er yet had tried the traitor's deed.
1022. To Beowulf gave the bairn of Healfdene
1023. a gold-wove banner, guerdon of triumph,
1024. broidered battle-flag, breastplate and helmet;
1025. and a splendid sword was seen of many
1026. borne to the brave one. Beowulf took
1027. cup in hall:2 for such costly gifts
1028. he suffered no shame in that soldier throng.
1029. For I heard of few heroes, in heartier mood,
1030. with four such gifts, so fashioned with gold,
1031. on the ale-bench honoring others thus!
1032. O'er the roof of the helmet high, a ridge,
1033. wound with wires, kept ward o'er the head,
1034. lest the relict-of-files3 should fierce invade,
1035. sharp in the strife, when that shielded hero
1036. should go to grapple against his foes.
1037. Then the earls'-defence4 on the floor5 bade lead
1038. coursers eight, with carven head-gear,
1039. adown the hall: one horse was decked
1040. with a saddle all shining and set in jewels;
1041. 'twas the battle-seat of the best of kings,
1042. when to play of swords the son of Healfdene
1043. was fain to fare. Ne'er failed his valor
1044. in the crush of combat when corpses fell.
1045. To Beowulf over them both then gave
1046. the refuge-of-Ingwines right and power,
1047. o'er war-steeds and weapons: wished him joy of them.
1048. Manfully thus the mighty prince,
1049. hoard-guard for heroes, that hard fight repaid
1050. with steeds and treasures contemned by none
1051. who is willing to say the sooth aright.
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1052. AND the lord of earls, to each that came
1053. with Beowulf over the briny ways,
1054. an heirloom there at the ale-bench gave,
1055. precious gift; and the price1 bade pay
1056. in gold for him whom Grendel erst
1057. murdered,—and fain of them more had killed,
1058. had not wisest God their Wyrd averted,
1059. and the man's2 brave mood. The Maker then
1060. ruled human kind, as here and now.
1061. Therefore is insight always best,
1062. and forethought of mind. How much awaits him
1063. of lief and of loath, who long time here,
1064. through days of warfare this world endures!
1065. Then song and music mingled sounds
1066. in the presence of Healfdene's head-of-armies3
1067. and harping was heard with the hero-lay
1068. as Hrothgar's singer the hall-joy woke
1069. along the mead-seats, making his song
1070. of that sudden raid on the sons of Finn.4
1071. Healfdene's hero, Hnaef the Scylding,
1072. was fated to fall in the Frisian slaughter.5
1073. Hildeburh needed not hold in value
1074. her enemies' honor!6 Innocent both
1075. were the loved ones she lost at the linden-play,
1076. bairn and brother, they bowed to fate,
1077. stricken by spears; 'twas a sorrowful woman!
1078. None doubted why the daughter of Hoc
1079. bewailed her doom when dawning came,
1080. and under the sky she saw them lying,
1081. kinsmen murdered, where most she had kenned
1082. of the sweets of the world! By war were swept, too,
1083. Finn's own liegemen, and few were left;
1084. in the parleying-place7 he could ply no longer
1085. weapon, nor war could he wage on Hengest,
1086. and rescue his remnant by right of arms
1087. from the prince's thane. A pact he offered:
1088. another dwelling the Danes should have,
1089. hall and high-seat, and half the power
1090. should fall to them in Frisian land;
1091. and at the fee-gifts, Folcwald's son
1092. day by day the Danes should honor,
1093. the folk of Hengest favor with rings,
1094. even as truly, with treasure and jewels,
1095. with fretted gold, as his Frisian kin
1096. he meant to honor in ale-hall there.
1097. Pact of peace they plighted further
1098. on both sides firmly. Finn to Hengest
1099. with oath, upon honor, openly promised
1100. that woful remnant, with wise-men's aid,
1101. nobly to govern, so none of the guests
1102. by word or work should warp the treaty,8
1103. or with malice of mind bemoan themselves
1104. as forced to follow their fee-giver's slayer,
1105. lordless men, as their lot ordained.
1106. Should Frisian, moreover, with foeman's taunt,
1107. that murderous hatred to mind recall,
1108. then edge of the sword must seal his doom.
1109. Oaths were given, and ancient gold
1110. heaped from hoard.—The hardy Scylding,
1111. battle-thane best,9 on his balefire lay.
1112. All on the pyre were plain to see
1113. the gory sark, the gilded swine-crest,
1114. boar of hard iron, and athelings many
1115. slain by the sword: at the slaughter they fell.
1116. It was Hildeburh's hest, at Hnaef's own pyre
1117. the bairn of her body on brands to lay,
1118. his bones to burn, on the balefire placed,
1119. at his uncle's side. In sorrowful dirges
1120. bewept them the woman: great wailing ascended.
1121. Then wound up to welkin the wildest of death-fires,
1122. roared o'er the hillock:10 heads all were melted,
1123. gashes burst, and blood gushed out
1124. from bites11 of the body. Balefire devoured,
1125. greediest spirit, those spared not by war
1126. out of either folk: their flower was gone.
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1127. THEN hastened those heroes their home to see,
1128. friendless, to find the Frisian land,
1129. houses and high burg. Hengest still
1130. through the death-dyed winter dwelt with Finn,
1131. holding pact, yet of home he minded,
1132. though powerless his ring-decked prow to drive
1133. over the waters, now waves rolled fierce
1134. lashed by the winds, or winter locked them
1135. in icy fetters. Then fared another
1136. year to men's dwellings, as yet they do,
1137. the sunbright skies, that their season ever
1138. duly await. Far off winter was driven;
1139. fair lay earth's breast; and fain was the rover,
1140. the guest, to depart, though more gladly he pondered
1141. on wreaking his vengeance than roaming the deep,
1142. and how to hasten the hot encounter
1143. where sons of the Frisians were sure to be.
1144. So he escaped not the common doom,
1145. when Hun with "Lafing," the light-of-battle,
1146. best of blades, his bosom pierced:
1147. its edge was famed with the Frisian earls.
1148. On fierce-heart Finn there fell likewise,
1149. on himself at home, the horrid sword-death;
1150. for Guthlaf and Oslaf of grim attack
1151. had sorrowing told, from sea-ways landed,
1152. mourning their woes.1 Finn's wavering spirit
1153. bode not in breast. The burg was reddened
1154. with blood of foemen, and Finn was slain,
1155. king amid clansmen; the queen was taken.
1156. To their ship the Scylding warriors bore
1157. all the chattels the chieftain owned,
1158. whatever they found in Finn's domain
1159. of gems and jewels. The gentle wife
1160. o'er paths of the deep to the Danes they bore,
1161. led to her land.
1162. The lay was finished,
1163. the gleeman's song. Then glad rose the revel;
1164. bench-joy brightened. Bearers draw
1165. from their "wonder-vats" wine. Comes Wealhtheow forth,
1166. under gold-crown goes where the good pair sit,
1167. uncle and nephew, true each to the other one,
1168. kindred in amity. Unferth the spokesman
1169. at the Scylding lord's feet sat: men had faith in his spirit,
1170. his keenness of courage, though kinsmen had found him
1171. unsure at the sword-play. The Scylding queen spoke:
1172. "Quaff of this cup, my king and lord,
1173. breaker of rings, and blithe be thou,
1174. gold-friend of men; to the Geats here speak
1175. such words of mildness as man should use.
1176. Be glad with thy Geats; of those gifts be mindful,
1177. or near or far, which now thou hast.
1178. Men say to me, as son thou wishest
1179. yon hero to hold. Thy Heorot purged,
1180. jewel-hall brightest, enjoy while thou canst,
1181. with many a largess; and leave to thy kin
1182. folk and realm when forth thou goest
1183. to greet thy doom. For gracious I deem
1184. my Hrothulf,2 willing to hold and rule
1185. nobly our youths, if thou yield up first,
1186. prince of Scyldings, thy part in the world.
1187. I ween with good he will well requite
1188. offspring of ours, when all he minds
1189. that for him we did in his helpless days
1190. of gift and grace to gain him honor!"
1191. Then she turned to the seat where her sons were placed,
1192. Hrethric and Hrothmund, with heroes' bairns,
1193. young men together: the Geat, too, sat there,
1194. Beowulf brave, the brothers between.
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1195. A CUP she gave him, with kindly greeting
1196. and winsome words. Of wounden gold,
1197. she offered, to honor him, arm-jewels twain,
1198. corselet and rings, and of collars the noblest
1199. that ever I knew the earth around.
1200. Ne'er heard I so mighty, 'neath heaven's dome,
1201. a hoard-gem of heroes, since Hama bore
1202. to his bright-built burg the Brisings' necklace,
1203. jewel and gem casket.—Jealousy fled he,
1204. Eormenric's hate: chose help eternal.
1205. Hygelac Geat, grandson of Swerting,
1206. on the last of his raids this ring bore with him,
1207. under his banner the booty defending,
1208. the war-spoil warding; but Wyrd o'erwhelmed him
1209. what time, in his daring, dangers he sought,
1210. feud with Frisians. Fairest of gems
1211. he bore with him over the beaker-of-waves,
1212. sovran strong: under shield he died.
1213. Fell the corpse of the king into keeping of Franks,
1214. gear of the breast, and that gorgeous ring;
1215. weaker warriors won the spoil,
1216. after gripe of battle, from Geatland's lord,
1217. and held the death-field.
1218. Din rose in hall.
1219. Wealhtheow spake amid warriors, and said:—
1220. "This jewel enjoy in thy jocund youth,
1221. Beowulf lov'd, these battle-weeds wear,
1222. a royal treasure, and richly thrive!
1223. Preserve thy strength, and these striplings here
1224. counsel in kindness: requital be mine.
1225. Hast done such deeds, that for days to come
1226. thou art famed among folk both far and near,
1227. so wide as washeth the wave of Ocean
1228. his windy walls. Through the ways of life
1229. prosper, O prince! I pray for thee
1230. rich possessions. To son of mine
1231. be helpful in deed and uphold his joys!
1232. Here every earl to the other is true,
1233. mild of mood, to the master loyal!
1234. Thanes are friendly, the throng obedient,
1235. liegemen are revelling: list and obey!"
1236. Went then to her place.—That was proudest of feasts;
1237. flowed wine for the warriors. Wyrd they knew not,
1238. destiny dire, and the doom to be seen
1239. by many an earl when eve should come,
1240. and Hrothgar homeward hasten away,
1241. royal, to rest. The room was guarded
1242. by an army of earls, as erst was done.
1243. They bared the bench-boards; abroad they spread
1244. beds and bolsters.—One beer-carouser
1245. in danger of doom lay down in the hall.—
1246. At their heads they set their shields of war,
1247. bucklers bright; on the bench were there
1248. over each atheling, easy to see,
1249. the high battle-helmet, the haughty spear,
1250. the corselet of rings. 'Twas their custom so
1251. ever to be for battle prepared,
1252. at home, or harrying, which it were,
1253. even as oft as evil threatened
1254. their sovran king.—They were clansmen good.
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Part 1B: Grendel's Mum (1255-2209):
1255. THEN sank they to sleep. With sorrow one bought
1256. his rest of the evening,—as ofttime had happened
1257. when Grendel guarded that golden hall,
1258. evil wrought, till his end drew nigh,
1259. slaughter for sins. 'Twas seen and told
1260. how an avenger survived the fiend,
1261. as was learned afar. The livelong time
1262. after that grim fight, Grendel's mother,
1263. monster of women, mourned her woe.
1264. She was doomed to dwell in the dreary waters,
1265. cold sea-courses, since Cain cut down
1266. with edge of the sword his only brother,
1267. his father's offspring: outlawed he fled,
1268. marked with murder, from men's delights
1269. warded the wilds.—There woke from him
1270. such fate-sent ghosts as Grendel, who,
1271. war-wolf horrid, at Heorot found
1272. a warrior watching and waiting the fray,
1273. with whom the grisly one grappled amain.
1274. But the man remembered his mighty power,
1275. the glorious gift that God had sent him,
1276. in his Maker's mercy put his trust
1277. for comfort and help: so he conquered the foe,
1278. felled the fiend, who fled abject,
1279. reft of joy, to the realms of death,
1280. mankind's foe. And his mother now,
1281. gloomy and grim, would go that quest
1282. of sorrow, the death of her son to avenge.
1283. To Heorot came she, where helmeted Danes
1284. slept in the hall. Too soon came back
1285. old ills of the earls, when in she burst,
1286. the mother of Grendel. Less grim, though, that terror,
1287. e'en as terror of woman in war is less,
1288. might of maid, than of men in arms
1289. when, hammer-forged, the falchion hard,
1290. sword gore-stained, through swine of the helm,
1291. crested, with keen blade carves amain.
1292. Then was in hall the hard-edge drawn,
1293. the swords on the settles,1 and shields a-many
1294. firm held in hand: nor helmet minded
1295. nor harness of mail, whom that horror seized.
1296. Haste was hers; she would hie afar
1297. and save her life when the liegemen saw her.
1298. Yet a single atheling up she seized
1299. fast and firm, as she fled to the moor.
1300. He was for Hrothgar of heroes the dearest,
1301. of trusty vassals betwixt the seas,
1302. whom she killed on his couch, a clansman famous,
1303. in battle brave.—Nor was Beowulf there;
1304. another house had been held apart,
1305. after giving of gold, for the Geat renowned.—
1306. Uproar filled Heorot; the hand all had viewed,
1307. blood-flecked, she bore with her; bale was returned,
1308. dole in the dwellings: 'twas dire exchange
1309. where Dane and Geat were doomed to give
1310. the lives of loved ones. Long-tried king,
1311. the hoary hero, at heart was sad
1312. when he knew his noble no more lived,
1313. and dead indeed was his dearest thane.
1314. To his bower was Beowulf brought in haste,
1315. dauntless victor. As daylight broke,
1316. along with his earls the atheling lord,
1317. with his clansmen, came where the king abode
1318. waiting to see if the Wielder-of-All
1319. would turn this tale of trouble and woe.
1320. Strode o'er floor the famed-in-strife,
1321. with his hand-companions,—the hall resounded,—
1322. wishing to greet the wise old king,
1323. Ingwines' lord; he asked if the night
1324. had passed in peace to the prince's mind.
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1325. HROTHGAR spake, helmet-of-Scyldings:—
1326. "Ask not of pleasure! Pain is renewed
1327. to Danish folk. Dead is Aeschere,
1328. of Yrmenlaf the elder brother,
1329. my sage adviser and stay in council,
1330. shoulder-comrade in stress of fight
1331. when warriors clashed and we warded our heads,
1332. hewed the helm-boars; hero famed
1333. should be every earl as Aeschere was!
1334. But here in Heorot a hand hath slain him
1335. of wandering death-sprite. I wot not whither,1
1336. proud of the prey, her path she took,
1337. fain of her fill. The feud she avenged
1338. that yesternight, unyieldingly,
1339. Grendel in grimmest grasp thou killedst,—
1340. seeing how long these liegemen mine
1341. he ruined and ravaged. Reft of life,
1342. in arms he fell. Now another comes,
1343. keen and cruel, her kin to avenge,
1344. faring far in feud of blood:
1345. so that many a thane shall think, who e'er
1346. sorrows in soul for that sharer of rings,
1347. this is hardest of heart-bales. The hand lies low
1348. that once was willing each wish to please.
1349. Land-dwellers here2 and liegemen mine,
1350. who house by those parts, I have heard relate
1351. that such a pair they have sometimes seen,
1352. march-stalkers mighty the moorland haunting,
1353. wandering spirits: one of them seemed,
1354. so far as my folk could fairly judge,
1355. of womankind; and one, accursed,
1356. in man's guise trod the misery-track
1357. of exile, though huger than human bulk.
1358. Grendel in days long gone they named him,
1359. folk of the land; his father they knew not,
1360. nor any brood that was born to him
1361. of treacherous spirits. Untrod is their home;
1362. by wolf-cliffs haunt they and windy headlands,
1363. fenways fearful, where flows the stream
1364. from mountains gliding to gloom of the rocks,
1365. underground flood. Not far is it hence
1366. in measure of miles that the mere expands,
1367. and o'er it the frost-bound forest hanging,
1368. sturdily rooted, shadows the wave.
1369. By night is a wonder weird to see,
1370. fire on the waters. So wise lived none
1371. of the sons of men, to search those depths!
1372. Nay, though the heath-rover, harried by dogs,
1373. the horn-proud hart, this holt should seek,
1374. long distance driven, his dear life first
1375. on the brink he yields ere he brave the plunge
1376. to hide his head: 'tis no happy place!
1377. Thence the welter of waters washes up
1378. wan to welkin when winds bestir
1379. evil storms, and air grows dusk,
1380. and the heavens weep. Now is help once more
1381. with thee alone! The land thou knowst not,
1382. place of fear, where thou findest out
1383. that sin-flecked being. Seek if thou dare!
1384. I will reward thee, for waging this fight,
1385. with ancient treasure, as erst I did,
1386. with winding gold, if thou winnest back."
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1387. BEOWULF spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:
1388. "Sorrow not, sage! It beseems us better
1389. friends to avenge than fruitlessly mourn them.
1390. Each of us all must his end abide
1391. in the ways of the world; so win who may
1392. glory ere death! When his days are told,
1393. that is the warrior's worthiest doom.
1394. Rise, O realm-warder! Ride we anon,
1395. and mark the trail of the mother of Grendel.
1396. No harbor shall hide her—heed my promise!—
1397. enfolding of field or forested mountain
1398. or floor of the flood, let her flee where she will!
1399. But thou this day endure in patience,
1400. as I ween thou wilt, thy woes each one."
1401. Leaped up the graybeard: God he thanked,
1402. mighty Lord, for the man's brave words.
1403. For Hrothgar soon a horse was saddled
1404. wave-maned steed. The sovran wise
1405. stately rode on; his shield-armed men
1406. followed in force. The footprints led
1407. along the woodland, widely seen,
1408. a path o'er the plain, where she passed, and trod
1409. the murky moor; of men-at-arms
1410. she bore the bravest and best one, dead,
1411. him who with Hrothgar the homestead ruled.
1412. On then went the atheling-born
1413. o'er stone-cliffs steep and strait defiles,
1414. narrow passes and unknown ways,
1415. headlands sheer, and the haunts of the Nicors.
1416. Foremost he1 fared, a few at his side
1417. of the wiser men, the ways to scan,
1418. till he found in a flash the forested hill
1419. hanging over the hoary rock,
1420. a woful wood: the waves below
1421. were dyed in blood. The Danish men
1422. had sorrow of soul, and for Scyldings all,
1423. for many a hero, 'twas hard to bear,
1424. ill for earls, when Aeschere's head
1425. they found by the flood on the foreland there.
1426. Waves were welling, the warriors saw,
1427. hot with blood; but the horn sang oft
1428. battle-song bold. The band sat down,
1429. and watched on the water worm-like things,
1430. sea-dragons strange that sounded the deep,
1431. and nicors that lay on the ledge of the ness—
1432. such as oft essay at hour of morn
1433. on the road-of-sails their ruthless quest,—
1434. and sea-snakes and monsters. These started away,
1435. swollen and savage that song to hear,
1436. that war-horn's blast. The warden of Geats,
1437. with bolt from bow, then balked of life,
1438. of wave-work, one monster, amid its heart
1439. went the keen war-shaft; in water it seemed
1440. less doughty in swimming whom death had seized.
1441. Swift on the billows, with boar-spears well
1442. hooked and barbed, it was hard beset,
1443. done to death and dragged on the headland,
1444. wave-roamer wondrous. Warriors viewed
1445. the grisly guest.
1446. Then girt him Beowulf
1447. in martial mail, nor mourned for his life.
1448. His breastplate broad and bright of hues,
1449. woven by hand, should the waters try;
1450. well could it ward the warrior's body
1451. that battle should break on his breast in vain
1452. nor harm his heart by the hand of a foe.
1453. And the helmet white that his head protected
1454. was destined to dare the deeps of the flood,
1455. through wave-whirl win: 'twas wound with chains,
1456. decked with gold, as in days of yore
1457. the weapon-smith worked it wondrously,
1458. with swine-forms set it, that swords nowise,
1459. brandished in battle, could bite that helm.
1460. Nor was that the meanest of mighty helps
1461. which Hrothgar's orator offered at need:
1462. "Hrunting" they named the hilted sword,
1463. of old-time heirlooms easily first;
1464. iron was its edge, all etched with poison,
1465. with battle-blood hardened, nor blenched it at fight
1466. in hero's hand who held it ever,
1467. on paths of peril prepared to go
1468. to folkstead2 of foes. Not first time this
1469. it was destined to do a daring task.
1470. For he bore not in mind, the bairn of Ecglaf
1471. sturdy and strong, that speech he had made,
1472. drunk with wine, now this weapon he lent
1473. to a stouter swordsman. Himself, though, durst not
1474. under welter of waters wager his life
1475. as loyal liegeman. So lost he his glory,
1476. honor of earls. With the other not so,
1477. who girded him now for the grim encounter.
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1478. BEOWULF spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:—
1479. "Have mind, thou honored offspring of Healfdene
1480. gold-friend of men, now I go on this quest,
1481. sovran wise, what once was said:
1482. if in thy cause it came that I
1483. should lose my life, thou wouldst loyal bide
1484. to me, though fallen, in father's place!
1485. Be guardian, thou, to this group of my thanes,
1486. my warrior-friends, if War should seize me;
1487. and the goodly gifts thou gavest me,
1488. Hrothgar beloved, to Hygelac send!
1489. Geatland's king may ken by the gold,
1490. Hrethel's son see, when he stares at the treasure,
1491. that I got me a friend for goodness famed,
1492. and joyed while I could in my jewel-bestower.
1493. And let Unferth wield this wondrous sword,
1494. earl far-honored, this heirloom precious,
1495. hard of edge: with Hrunting I
1496. seek doom of glory, or Death shall take me."
1497. After these words the Weder-Geat lord
1498. boldly hastened, biding never
1499. answer at all: the ocean floods
1500. closed o'er the hero. Long while of the day
1501. fled ere he felt the floor of the sea.
1502. Soon found the fiend who the flood-domain
1503. sword-hungry held these hundred winters,
1504. greedy and grim, that some guest from above,
1505. some man, was raiding her monster-realm.
1506. She grasped out for him with grisly claws,
1507. and the warrior seized; yet scathed she not
1508. his body hale; the breastplate hindered,
1509. as she strove to shatter the sark of war,
1510. the linked harness, with loathsome hand.
1511. Then bore this brine-wolf, when bottom she touched,
1512. the lord of rings to the lair she haunted
1513. whiles vainly he strove, though his valor held,
1514. weapon to wield against wondrous monsters
1515. that sore beset him; sea-beasts many
1516. tried with fierce tusks to tear his mail,
1517. and swarmed on the stranger. But soon he marked
1518. he was now in some hall, he knew not which,
1519. where water never could work him harm,
1520. nor through the roof could reach him ever
1521. fangs of the flood. Firelight he saw,
1522. beams of a blaze that brightly shone.
1523. Then the warrior was ware of that wolf-of-the-deep,
1524. mere-wife monstrous. For mighty stroke
1525. he swung his blade, and the blow withheld not.
1526. Then sang on her head that seemly blade
1527. its war-song wild. But the warrior found
1528. the light-of-battle1 was loath to bite,
1529. to harm the heart: its hard edge failed
1530. the noble at need, yet had known of old
1531. strife hand to hand, and had helmets cloven,
1532. doomed men's fighting-gear. First time, this,
1533. for the gleaming blade that its glory fell.
1534. Firm still stood, nor failed in valor,
1535. heedful of high deeds, Hygelac's kinsman;
1536. flung away fretted sword, featly jewelled,
1537. the angry earl; on earth it lay
1538. steel-edged and stiff. His strength he trusted,
1539. hand-gripe of might. So man shall do
1540. whenever in war he weens to earn him
1541. lasting fame, nor fears for his life!
1542. Seized then by shoulder, shrank not from combat,
1543. the Geatish war-prince Grendel's mother.
1544. Flung then the fierce one, filled with wrath,
1545. his deadly foe, that she fell to ground.
1546. Swift on her part she paid him back
1547. with grisly grasp, and grappled with him.
1548. Spent with struggle, stumbled the warrior,
1549. fiercest of fighting-men, fell adown.
1550. On the hall-guest she hurled herself, hent her short sword,
1551. broad and brown-edged,2 the bairn to avenge,
1552. the sole-born son.—On his shoulder lay
1553. braided breast-mail, barring death,
1554. withstanding entrance of edge or blade.
1555. Life would have ended for Ecgtheow's son,
1556. under wide earth for that earl of Geats,
1557. had his armor of war not aided him,
1558. battle-net hard, and holy God
1559. wielded the victory, wisest Maker.
1560. The Lord of Heaven allowed his cause;
1561. and easily rose the earl erect.
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1562. 'MID the battle-gear saw he a blade triumphant,
1563. old-sword of Eotens, with edge of proof,
1564. warriors' heirloom, weapon unmatched,
1565. —save only 'twas more than other men
1566. to bandy-of-battle could bear at all—
1567. as the giants had wrought it, ready and keen.
1568. Seized then its chain-hilt the Scyldings' chieftain,
1569. bold and battle-grim, brandished the sword,
1570. reckless of life, and so wrathfully smote
1571. that it gripped her neck and grasped her hard,
1572. her bone-rings breaking: the blade pierced through
1573. that fated-one's flesh: to floor she sank.
1574. Bloody the blade: he was blithe of his deed.
1575. Then blazed forth light. 'Twas bright within
1576. as when from the sky there shines unclouded
1577. heaven's candle. The hall he scanned.
1578. By the wall then went he; his weapon raised
1579. high by its hilts the Hygelac-thane,
1580. angry and eager. That edge was not useless
1581. to the warrior now. He wished with speed
1582. Grendel to guerdon for grim raids many,
1583. for the war he waged on Western-Danes
1584. oftener far than an only time,
1585. when of Hrothgar's hearth-companions
1586. he slew in slumber, in sleep devoured,
1587. fifteen men of the folk of Danes,
1588. and as many others outward bore,
1589. his horrible prey. Well paid for that
1590. the wrathful prince! For now prone he saw
1591. Grendel stretched there, spent with war,
1592. spoiled of life, so scathed had left him
1593. Heorot's battle. The body sprang far
1594. when after death it endured the blow,
1595. sword-stroke savage, that severed its head.
1596. Soon,1 then, saw the sage companions
1597. who waited with Hrothgar, watching the flood,
1598. that the tossing waters turbid grew,
1599. blood-stained the mere. Old men together,
1600. hoary-haired, of the hero spake;
1601. the warrior would not, they weened, again,
1602. proud of conquest, come to seek
1603. their mighty master. To many it seemed
1604. the wolf-of-the-waves had won his life.
1605. The ninth hour came. The noble Scyldings
1606. left the headland; homeward went
1607. the gold-friend of men.2 But the guests sat on,
1608. stared at the surges, sick in heart,
1609. and wished, yet weened not, their winsome lord
1610. again to see.
1611. Now that sword began,
1612. from blood of the fight, in battle-droppings,3
1613. war-blade, to wane: 'twas a wondrous thing
1614. that all of it melted as ice is wont
1615. when frosty fetters the Father loosens,
1616. unwinds the wave-bonds, wielding all
1617. seasons and times: the true God he!
1618. Nor took from that dwelling the duke of the Geats
1619. precious things, though a plenty he saw,
1620. save only the head and that hilt withal
1621. blazoned with jewels: the blade had melted,
1622. burned was the bright sword, her blood was so hot,
1623. so poisoned the hell-sprite who perished within there.
1624. Soon he was swimming who safe saw in combat
1625. downfall of demons; up-dove through the flood.
1626. The clashing waters were cleansed now,
1627. waste of waves, where the wandering fiend
1628. her life-days left and this lapsing world.
1629. Swam then to strand the sailors'-refuge,
1630. sturdy-in-spirit, of sea-booty glad,
1631. of burden brave he bore with him.
1632. Went then to greet him, and God they thanked,
1633. the thane-band choice of their chieftain blithe,
1634. that safe and sound they could see him again.
1635. Soon from the hardy one helmet and armor
1636. deftly they doffed: now drowsed the mere,
1637. water 'neath welkin, with war-blood stained.
1638. Forth they fared by the footpaths thence,
1639. merry at heart the highways measured,
1640. well-known roads. Courageous men
1641. carried the head from the cliff by the sea,
1642. an arduous task for all the band,
1643. the firm in fight, since four were needed
1644. on the shaft-of-slaughter4 strenuously
1645. to bear to the gold-hall Grendel's head.
1646. So presently to the palace there
1647. foemen fearless, fourteen Geats,
1648. marching came. Their master-of-clan
1649. mighty amid them the meadow-ways trod.
1650. Strode then within the sovran thane
1651. fearless in fight, of fame renowned,
1652. hardy hero, Hrothgar to greet.
1653. And next by the hair into hall was borne
1654. Grendel's head, where the henchmen were drinking,
1655. an awe to clan and queen alike,
1656. a monster of marvel: the men looked on.
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1657. BEOWULF spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:—
1658. "Lo, now, this sea-booty, son of Healfdene,
1659. Lord of Scyldings, we've lustily brought thee,
1660. sign of glory; thou seest it here.
1661. Not lightly did I with my life escape!
1662. In war under water this work I essayed
1663. with endless effort; and even so
1664. my strength had been lost had the Lord not shielded me.
1665. Not a whit could I with Hrunting do
1666. in work of war, though the weapon is good;
1667. yet a sword the Sovran of Men vouchsafed me
1668. to spy on the wall there, in splendor hanging,
1669. old, gigantic,—how oft He guides
1670. the friendless wight!—and I fought with that brand,
1671. felling in fight, since fate was with me,
1672. the house's wardens. That war-sword then
1673. all burned, bright blade, when the blood gushed o'er it,
1674. battle-sweat hot; but the hilt I brought back
1675. from my foes. So avenged I their fiendish deeds
1676. death-fall of Danes, as was due and right.
1677. And this is my hest, that in Heorot now
1678. safe thou canst sleep with thy soldier band,
1679. and every thane of all thy folk
1680. both old and young; no evil fear,
1681. Scyldings' lord, from that side again,
1682. aught ill for thy earls, as erst thou must!"
1683. Then the golden hilt, for that gray-haired leader,
1684. hoary hero, in hand was laid,
1685. giant-wrought, old. So owned and enjoyed it
1686. after downfall of devils, the Danish lord,
1687. wonder-smiths' work, since the world was rid
1688. of that grim-souled fiend, the foe of God,
1689. murder-marked, and his mother as well.
1690. Now it passed into power of the people's king,
1691. best of all that the oceans bound
1692. who have scattered their gold o'er Scandia's isle.
1693. Hrothgar spake—the hilt he viewed,
1694. heirloom old, where was etched the rise
1695. of that far-off fight when the floods o'erwhelmed,
1696. raging waves, the race of giants
1697. (fearful their fate!), a folk estranged
1698. from God Eternal: whence guerdon due
1699. in that waste of waters the Wielder paid them.
1700. So on the guard of shining gold
1701. in runic staves it was rightly said
1702. for whom the serpent-traced sword was wrought,
1703. best of blades, in bygone days,
1704. and the hilt well wound.—The wise-one spake,
1705. son of Healfdene; silent were all:—
1706. "Lo, so may he say who sooth and right
1707. follows 'mid folk, of far times mindful,
1708. a land-warden old,1 that this earl belongs
1709. to the better breed! So, borne aloft,
1710. thy fame must fly, O friend my Beowulf,
1711. far and wide o'er folksteads many. Firmly thou
1712. shalt all maintain,
1713. mighty strength with mood of wisdom. Love of
1714. mine will I assure thee,
1715. as, awhile ago, I promised; thou shalt prove a stay in future,
1716. in far-off years, to folk of thine,
1717. to the heroes a help. Was not Heremod thus
1718. to offspring of Ecgwela, Honor-Scyldings,
1719. nor grew for their grace, but for grisly slaughter,
1720. for doom of death to the Danishmen.
1721. He slew, wrath-swollen, his shoulder-comrades,
1722. companions at board! So he passed alone,
1723. chieftain haughty, from human cheer.
1724. Though him the Maker with might endowed,
1725. delights of power, and uplifted high
1726. above all men, yet blood-fierce his mind,
1727. his breast-hoard, grew, no bracelets gave he
1728. to Danes as was due; he endured all joyless
1729. strain of struggle and stress of woe,
1730. long feud with his folk. Here find thy lesson!
1731. Of virtue advise thee! This verse I have said for thee,
1732. wise from lapsed winters. Wondrous seems
1733. how to sons of men Almighty God
1734. in the strength of His spirit sendeth wisdom,
1735. estate, high station: He swayeth all things.
1736. Whiles He letteth right lustily fare
1737. the heart of the hero of high-born race,—
1738. in seat ancestral assigns him bliss,
1739. his folk's sure fortress in fee to hold,
1740. puts in his power great parts of the earth,
1741. empire so ample, that end of it
1742. this wanter-of-wisdom weeneth none.
1743. So he waxes in wealth, nowise can harm him
1744. illness or age; no evil cares
1745. shadow his spirit; no sword-hate threatens
1746. from ever an enemy: all the world
1747. wends at his will, no worse he knoweth,
1748. till all within him obstinate pride
1749. waxes and wakes while the warden slumbers,
1750. the spirit's sentry; sleep is too fast
1751. which masters his might, and the murderer nears,
1752. stealthily shooting the shafts from his bow!
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1753. "UNDER harness his heart then is hit indeed
1754. by sharpest shafts; and no shelter avails
1755. from foul behest of the hellish fiend.1
1756. Him seems too little what long he possessed.
1757. Greedy and grim, no golden rings
1758. he gives for his pride; the promised future
1759. forgets he and spurns, with all God has sent him,
1760. Wonder-Wielder, of wealth and fame.
1761. Yet in the end it ever comes
1762. that the frame of the body fragile yields,
1763. fated falls; and there follows another
1764. who joyously the jewels divides,
1765. the royal riches, nor recks of his forebear.
1766. Ban, then, such baleful thoughts, Beowulf dearest,
1767. best of men, and the better part choose,
1768. profit eternal; and temper thy pride,
1769. warrior famous! The flower of thy might
1770. lasts now a while: but erelong it shall be
1771. that sickness or sword thy strength shall minish,
1772. or fang of fire, or flooding billow,
1773. or bite of blade, or brandished spear,
1774. or odious age; or the eyes' clear beam
1775. wax dull and darken: Death even thee
1776. in haste shall o'erwhelm, thou hero of war!
1777. So the Ring-Danes these half-years a hundred I ruled,
1778. wielded 'neath welkin, and warded them bravely
1779. from mighty-ones many o'er middle-earth,
1780. from spear and sword, till it seemed for me
1781. no foe could be found under fold of the sky.
1782. Lo, sudden the shift! To me seated secure
1783. came grief for joy when Grendel began
1784. to harry my home, the hellish foe;
1785. for those ruthless raids, unresting I suffered
1786. heart-sorrow heavy. Heaven be thanked,
1787. Lord Eternal, for life extended
1788. that I on this head all hewn and bloody,
1789. after long evil, with eyes may gaze!
1790. —Go to the bench now! Be glad at banquet,
1791. warrior worthy! A wealth of treasure
1792. at dawn of day, be dealt between us!"
1793. Glad was the Geats' lord, going betimes
1794. to seek his seat, as the Sage commanded.
1795. Afresh, as before, for the famed-in-battle,
1796. for the band of the hall, was a banquet dight
1797. nobly anew. The Night-Helm darkened
1798. dusk o'er the drinkers.
1799. The doughty ones rose:
1800. for the hoary-headed would hasten to rest,
1801. aged Scylding; and eager the Geat,
1802. shield-fighter sturdy, for sleeping yearned.
1803. Him wander-weary, warrior-guest
1804. from far, a hall-thane heralded forth,
1805. who by custom courtly cared for all
1806. needs of a thane as in those old days
1807. warrior-wanderers wont to have.
1808. So slumbered the stout-heart. Stately the hall
1809. rose gabled and gilt where the guest slept on
1810. till a raven black the rapture-of-heaven2
1811. blithe-heart boded. Bright came flying
1812. shine after shadow. The swordsmen hastened,
1813. athelings all were eager homeward
1814. forth to fare; and far from thence
1815. the great-hearted guest would guide his keel.
1816. Bade then the hardy-one Hrunting be brought
1817. to the son of Ecglaf, the sword bade him take,
1818. excellent iron, and uttered his thanks for it,
1819. quoth that he counted it keen in battle,
1820. "war-friend" winsome: with words he slandered not
1821. edge of the blade: 'twas a big-hearted man!
1822. Now eager for parting and armed at point
1823. warriors waited, while went to his host
1824. that Darling of Danes. The doughty atheling
1825. to high-seat hastened and Hrothgar greeted.
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1826. BEOWULF spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:—
1827. "Lo, we seafarers say our will,
1828. far-come men, that we fain would seek
1829. Hygelac now. We here have found
1830. hosts to our heart: thou hast harbored us well.
1831. If ever on earth I am able to win me
1832. more of thy love, O lord of men,
1833. aught anew, than I now have done,
1834. for work of war I am willing still!
1835. If it come to me ever across the seas
1836. that neighbor foemen annoy and fright thee,—
1837. as they that hate thee erewhile have used,—
1838. thousands then of thanes I shall bring,
1839. heroes to help thee. Of Hygelac I know,
1840. ward of his folk, that, though few his years,
1841. the lord of the Geats will give me aid
1842. by word and by work, that well I may serve thee,
1843. wielding the war-wood to win thy triumph
1844. and lending thee might when thou lackest men.
1845. If thy Hrethric should come to court of Geats,
1846. a sovran's son, he will surely there
1847. find his friends. A far-off land
1848. each man should visit who vaunts him brave."
1849. Him then answering, Hrothgar spake:—
1850. "These words of thine the wisest God
1851. sent to thy soul! No sager counsel
1852. from so young in years e'er yet have I heard.
1853. Thou art strong of main and in mind art wary,
1854. art wise in words! I ween indeed
1855. if ever it hap that Hrethel's heir
1856. by spear be seized, by sword-grim battle,
1857. by illness or iron, thine elder and lord,
1858. people's leader,—and life be thine,—
1859. no seemlier man will the Sea-Geats find
1860. at all to choose for their chief and king,
1861. for hoard-guard of heroes, if hold thou wilt
1862. thy kinsman's kingdom! Thy keen mind pleases me
1863. the longer the better, Beowulf loved!
1864. Thou hast brought it about that both our peoples,
1865. sons of the Geat and Spear-Dane folk,
1866. shall have mutual peace, and from murderous strife,
1867. such as once they waged, from war refrain.
1868. Long as I rule this realm so wide,
1869. let our hoards be common, let heroes with gold
1870. each other greet o'er the gannet's-bath,
1871. and the ringed-prow bear o'er rolling waves
1872. tokens of love. I trow my landfolk
1873. towards friend and foe are firmly joined,
1874. and honor they keep in the olden way."
1875. To him in the hall, then, Healfdene's son
1876. gave treasures twelve, and the trust-of-earls
1877. bade him fare with the gifts to his folk beloved,
1878. hale to his home, and in haste return.
1879. Then kissed the king of kin renowned,
1880. Scyldings' chieftain, that choicest thane,
1881. and fell on his neck. Fast flowed the tears
1882. of the hoary-headed. Heavy with winters,
1883. he had chances twain, but he clung to this,1—
1884. that each should look on the other again,
1885. and hear him in hall. Was this hero so dear to him.
1886. his breast's wild billows he banned in vain;
1887. safe in his soul a secret longing,
1888. locked in his mind, for that loved man
1889. burned in his blood. Then Beowulf strode,
1890. glad of his gold-gifts, the grass-plot o'er,
1891. warrior blithe. The wave-roamer bode
1892. riding at anchor, its owner awaiting.
1893. As they hastened onward, Hrothgar's gift
1894. they lauded at length.—'Twas a lord unpeered,
1895. every way blameless, till age had broken
1896. —it spareth no mortal—his splendid might.
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1897. CAME now to ocean the ever-courageous
1898. hardy henchmen, their harness bearing,
1899. woven war-sarks. The warden marked,
1900. trusty as ever, the earl's return.
1901. From the height of the hill no hostile words
1902. reached the guests as he rode to greet them;
1903. but "Welcome!" he called to that Weder clan
1904. as the sheen-mailed spoilers to ship marched on.
1905. Then on the strand, with steeds and treasure
1906. and armor their roomy and ring-dight ship
1907. was heavily laden: high its mast
1908. rose over Hrothgar's hoarded gems.
1909. A sword to the boat-guard Beowulf gave,
1910. mounted with gold; on the mead-bench since
1911. he was better esteemed, that blade possessing,
1912. heirloom old.—Their ocean-keel boarding,
1913. they drove through the deep, and Daneland left.
1914. A sea-cloth was set, a sail with ropes,
1915. firm to the mast; the flood-timbers moaned;1
1916. nor did wind over billows that wave-swimmer blow
1917. across from her course. The craft sped on,
1918. foam-necked it floated forth o'er the waves,
1919. keel firm-bound over briny currents,
1920. till they got them sight of the Geatish cliffs,
1921. home-known headlands. High the boat,
1922. stirred by winds, on the strand updrove.
1923. Helpful at haven the harbor-guard stood,
1924. who long already for loved companions
1925. by the water had waited and watched afar.
1926. He bound to the beach the broad-bosomed ship
1927. with anchor-bands, lest ocean-billows
1928. that trusty timber should tear away.
1929. Then Beowulf bade them bear the treasure,
1930. gold and jewels; no journey far
1931. was it thence to go to the giver of rings,
1932. Hygelac Hrethling: at home he dwelt
1933. by the sea-wall close, himself and clan.
1934. Haughty that house, a hero the king,
1935. high the hall, and Hygd2 right young,
1936. wise and wary, though winters few
1937. in those fortress walls she had found a home,
1938. Haereth's daughter. Nor humble her ways,
1939. nor grudged she gifts to the Geatish men,
1940. of precious treasure. Not Thryth's pride showed she,
1941. folk-queen famed, or that fell deceit.
1942. Was none so daring that durst make bold
1943. (save her lord alone) of the liegemen dear
1944. that lady full in the face to look,
1945. but forged fetters he found his lot,
1946. bonds of death! And brief the respite;
1947. soon as they seized him, his sword-doom was spoken,
1948. and the burnished blade a baleful murder
1949. proclaimed and closed. No queenly way
1950. for woman to practise, though peerless she,
1951. that the weaver-of-peace3 from warrior dear
1952. by wrath and lying his life should reave!
1953. But Hemming's kinsman hindered this.—
1954. For over their ale men also told
1955. that of these folk-horrors fewer she wrought,
1956. onslaughts of evil, after she went,
1957. gold-decked bride, to the brave young prince,
1958. atheling haughty, and Offa's hall
1959. o'er the fallow flood at her father's bidding
1960. safely sought, where since she prospered,
1961. royal, throned, rich in goods,
1962. fain of the fair life fate had sent her,
1963. and leal in love to the lord of warriors.
1964. He, of all heroes I heard of ever
1965. from sea to sea, of the sons of earth,
1966. most excellent seemed. Hence Offa was praised
1967. for his fighting and feeing by far-off men,
1968. the spear-bold warrior; wisely he ruled
1969. over his empire. Eomer woke to him,
1970. help of heroes, Hemming's kinsman,
1971. Grandson of Garmund, grim in war.
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1972. HASTENED the hardy one, henchmen with him,
1973. sandy strand of the sea to tread
1974. and widespread ways. The world's great candle,
1975. sun shone from south. They strode along
1976. with sturdy steps to the spot they knew
1977. where the battle-king young, his burg within,
1978. slayer of Ongentheow, shared the rings,
1979. shelter-of-heroes. To Hygelac
1980. Beowulf's coming was quickly told,—
1981. that there in the court the clansmen's refuge,
1982. the shield-companion sound and alive,
1983. hale from the hero-play homeward strode.
1984. With haste in the hall, by highest order,
1985. room for the rovers was readily made.
1986. By his sovran he sat, come safe from battle,
1987. kinsman by kinsman. His kindly lord
1988. he first had greeted in gracious form,
1989. with manly words. The mead dispensing,
1990. came through the high hall Haereth's daughter,
1991. winsome to warriors, wine-cup bore
1992. to the hands of the heroes. Hygelac then
1993. his comrade fairly with question plied
1994. in the lofty hall, sore longing to know
1995. what manner of sojourn the Sea-Geats made.
1996. "What came of thy quest, my kinsman Beowulf,
1997. when thy yearnings suddenly swept thee yonder
1998. battle to seek o'er the briny sea,
1999. combat in Heorot? Hrothgar couldst thou
2000. aid at all, the honored chief,
2001. in his wide-known woes? With waves of care
2002. my sad heart seethed; I sore mistrusted
2003. my loved one's venture: long I begged thee
2004. by no means to seek that slaughtering monster,
2005. but suffer the South-Danes to settle their feud
2006. themselves with Grendel. Now God be thanked
2007. that safe and sound I can see thee now!"
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2008. Beowulf spake, the bairn of Ecgtheow:—
2009. "'Tis known and unhidden, Hygelac Lord,
2010. to many men, that meeting of ours,
2011. struggle grim between Grendel and me,
2012. which we fought on the field where full too many
2013. sorrows he wrought for the Scylding-Victors,
2014. evils unending. These all I avenged.
2015. No boast can be from breed of Grendel,
2016. any on earth, for that uproar at dawn,
2017. from the longest-lived of the loathsome race
2018. in fleshly fold!—But first I went
2019. Hrothgar to greet in the hall of gifts,
2020. where Healfdene's kinsman high-renowned,
2021. soon as my purpose was plain to him,
2022. assigned me a seat by his son and heir.
2023. The liegemen were lusty; my life-days never
2024. such merry men over mead in hall
2025. have I heard under heaven! The high-born queen,
2026. people's peace-bringer, passed through the hall,
2027. cheered the young clansmen, clasps of gold,
2028. ere she sought her seat, to sundry gave.
2029. Oft to the heroes Hrothgar's daughter,
2030. to earls in turn, the ale-cup tendered,—
2031. she whom I heard these hall-companions
2032. Freawaru name, when fretted gold
2033. she proffered the warriors. Promised is she,
2034. gold-decked maid, to the glad son of Froda.
2035. Sage this seems to the Scylding's-friend,
2036. kingdom's-keeper: he counts it wise
2037. the woman to wed so and ward off feud,
2038. store of slaughter. But seldom ever
2039. when men are slain, does the murder-spear sink
2040. but briefest while, though the bride be fair!1
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2041. "Nor haply will like it the Heathobard lord,
2042. and as little each of his liegemen all,
2043. when a thane of the Danes, in that doughty throng,
2044. goes with the lady along their hall,
2045. and on him the old-time heirlooms glisten
2046. hard and ring-decked, Heathobard's treasure,
2047. weapons that once they wielded fair
2048. until they lost at the linden-play2
2049. liegeman leal and their lives as well.
2050. Then, over the ale, on this heirloom gazing,
2051. some ash-wielder old who has all in mind
2052. that spear-death of men,3—he is stern of mood,
2053. heavy at heart,—in the hero young
2054. tests the temper and tries the soul
2055. and war-hate wakens, with words like these:—
2056. _Canst thou not, comrade, ken that sword
2057. which to the fray thy father carried
2058. in his final feud, 'neath the fighting-mask,
2059. dearest of blades, when the Danish slew him
2060. and wielded the war-place on Withergild's fall,
2061. after havoc of heroes, those hardy Scyldings?
2062. Now, the son of a certain slaughtering Dane,
2063. proud of his treasure, paces this hall,
2064. joys in the killing, and carries the jewel4
2065. that rightfully ought to be owned by thee!_
2066. Thus he urges and eggs him all the time
2067. with keenest words, till occasion offers
2068. that Freawaru's thane, for his father's deed,
2069. after bite of brand in his blood must slumber,
2070. losing his life; but that liegeman flies
2071. living away, for the land he kens.
2072. And thus be broken on both their sides
2073. oaths of the earls, when Ingeld's breast
2074. wells with war-hate, and wife-love now
2075. after the care-billows cooler grows.
2076. "So5 I hold not high the Heathobards' faith
2077. due to the Danes, or their during love
2078. and pact of peace.—But I pass from that,
2079. turning to Grendel, O giver-of-treasure,
2080. and saying in full how the fight resulted,
2081. hand-fray of heroes. When heaven's jewel
2082. had fled o'er far fields, that fierce sprite came,
2083. night-foe savage, to seek us out
2084. where safe and sound we sentried the hall.
2085. To Hondscio then was that harassing deadly,
2086. his fall there was fated. He first was slain,
2087. girded warrior. Grendel on him
2088. turned murderous mouth, on our mighty kinsman,
2089. and all of the brave man's body devoured.
2090. Yet none the earlier, empty-handed,
2091. would the bloody-toothed murderer, mindful of bale,
2092. outward go from the gold-decked hall:
2093. but me he attacked in his terror of might,
2094. with greedy hand grasped me. A glove hung by him6
2095. wide and wondrous, wound with bands;
2096. and in artful wise it all was wrought,
2097. by devilish craft, of dragon-skins.
2098. Me therein, an innocent man,
2099. the fiendish foe was fain to thrust
2100. with many another. He might not so,
2101. when I all angrily upright stood.
2102. 'Twere long to relate how that land-destroyer
2103. I paid in kind for his cruel deeds;
2104. yet there, my prince, this people of thine
2105. got fame by my fighting. He fled away,
2106. and a little space his life preserved;
2107. but there staid behind him his stronger hand
2108. left in Heorot; heartsick thence
2109. on the floor of the ocean that outcast fell.
2110. Me for this struggle the Scyldings'-friend
2111. paid in plenty with plates of gold,
2112. with many a treasure, when morn had come
2113. and we all at the banquet-board sat down.
2114. Then was song and glee. The gray-haired Scylding,
2115. much tested, told of the times of yore.
2116. Whiles the hero his harp bestirred,
2117. wood-of-delight; now lays he chanted
2118. of sooth and sadness, or said aright
2119. legends of wonder, the wide-hearted king;
2120. or for years of his youth he would yearn at times,
2121. for strength of old struggles, now stricken with age,
2122. hoary hero: his heart surged full
2123. when, wise with winters, he wailed their flight.
2124. Thus in the hall the whole of that day
2125. at ease we feasted, till fell o'er earth
2126. another night. Anon full ready
2127. in greed of vengeance, Grendel's mother
2128. set forth all doleful. Dead was her son
2129. through war-hate of Weders; now, woman monstrous
2130. with fury fell a foeman she slew,
2131. avenged her offspring. From Aeschere old,
2132. loyal councillor, life was gone;
2133. nor might they e'en, when morning broke,
2134. those Danish people, their death-done comrade
2135. burn with brands, on balefire lay
2136. the man they mourned. Under mountain stream
2137. she had carried the corpse with cruel hands.
2138. For Hrothgar that was the heaviest sorrow
2139. of all that had laden the lord of his folk.
2140. The leader then, by thy life, besought me
2141. (sad was his soul) in the sea-waves' coil
2142. to play the hero and hazard my being
2143. for glory of prowess: my guerdon he pledged.
2144. I then in the waters—'tis widely known—
2145. that sea-floor-guardian savage found.
2146. Hand-to-hand there a while we struggled;
2147. billows welled blood; in the briny hall
2148. her head I hewed with a hardy blade
2149. from Grendel's mother,—and gained my life,
2150. though not without danger. My doom was not yet.
2151. Then the haven-of-heroes, Healfdene's son,
2152. gave me in guerdon great gifts of price.
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2153. "So held this king to the customs old,
2154. that I wanted for nought in the wage I gained,
2155. the meed of my might; he made me gifts,
2156. Healfdene's heir, for my own disposal.
2157. Now to thee, my prince, I proffer them all,
2158. gladly give them. Thy grace alone
2159. can find me favor. Few indeed
2160. have I of kinsmen, save, Hygelac, thee!"
2161. Then he bade them bear him the boar-head standard,
2162. the battle-helm high, and breastplate gray,
2163. the splendid sword; then spake in form:—
2164. "Me this war-gear the wise old prince,
2165. Hrothgar, gave, and his hest he added,
2166. that its story be straightway said to thee.—
2167. A while it was held by Heorogar king,
2168. for long time lord of the land of Scyldings;
2169. yet not to his son the sovran left it,
2170. to daring Heoroweard,—dear as he was to him,
2171. his harness of battle.—Well hold thou it all!"
2172. And I heard that soon passed o'er the path of this treasure,
2173. all apple-fallow, four good steeds,
2174. each like the others, arms and horses
2175. he gave to the king. So should kinsmen be,
2176. not weave one another the net of wiles,
2177. or with deep-hid treachery death contrive
2178. for neighbor and comrade. His nephew was ever
2179. by hardy Hygelac held full dear,
2180. and each kept watch o'er the other's weal.
2181. I heard, too, the necklace to Hygd he presented,
2182. wonder-wrought treasure, which Wealhtheow gave him
2183. sovran's daughter: three steeds he added,
2184. slender and saddle-gay. Since such gift
2185. the gem gleamed bright on the breast of the queen.
2186. Thus showed his strain the son of Ecgtheow
2187. as a man remarked for mighty deeds
2188. and acts of honor. At ale he slew not
2189. comrade or kin; nor cruel his mood,
2190. though of sons of earth his strength was greatest,
2191. a glorious gift that God had sent
2192. the splendid leader. Long was he spurned,
2193. and worthless by Geatish warriors held;
2194. him at mead the master-of-clans
2195. failed full oft to favor at all.
2196. Slack and shiftless the strong men deemed him,
2197. profitless prince; but payment came,
2198. to the warrior honored, for all his woes.—
2199. Then the bulwark-of-earls1 bade bring within,
2200. hardy chieftain, Hrethel's heirloom
2201. garnished with gold: no Geat e'er knew
2202. in shape of a sword a statelier prize.
2203. The brand he laid in Beowulf's lap;
2204. and of hides assigned him seven thousand,2
2205. with house and high-seat. They held in common
2206. land alike by their line of birth,
2207. inheritance, home: but higher the king
2208. because of his rule o'er the realm itself.
Part 2: The Dragon (2209-3192):
2209. Now further it fell with the flight of years,
2210. with harryings horrid, that Hygelac perished,3
2211. and Heardred, too, by hewing of swords
2212. under the shield-wall slaughtered lay,
2213. when him at the van of his victor-folk
2214. sought hardy heroes, Heatho-Scilfings,
2215. in arms o'erwhelming Hereric's nephew.
2216. Then Beowulf came as king this broad
2217. realm to wield; and he ruled it well
2218. fifty winters,4 a wise old prince,
2219. warding his land, until One began
2220. in the dark of night, a Dragon, to rage.
2221. In the grave on the hill a hoard it guarded,
2222. in the stone-barrow steep. A strait path reached it,
2223. unknown to mortals. Some man, however,
2224. came by chance that cave within
2225. to the heathen hoard.5 In hand he took
2226. a golden goblet, nor gave he it back,
2227. stole with it away, while the watcher slept,
2228. by thievish wiles: for the warden's wrath
2229. prince and people must pay betimes!
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2230. THAT way he went with no will of his own,
2231. in danger of life, to the dragon's hoard,
2232. but for pressure of peril, some prince's thane.
2233. He fled in fear the fatal scourge,
2234. seeking shelter, a sinful man,
2235. and entered in. At the awful sight
2236. tottered that guest, and terror seized him;
2237. yet the wretched fugitive rallied anon
2238. from fright and fear ere he fled away,
2239. and took the cup from that treasure-hoard.
2240. Of such besides there was store enough,
2241. heirlooms old, the earth below,
2242. which some earl forgotten, in ancient years,
2243. left the last of his lofty race,
2244. heedfully there had hidden away,
2245. dearest treasure. For death of yore
2246. had hurried all hence; and he alone
2247. left to live, the last of the clan,
2248. weeping his friends, yet wished to bide
2249. warding the treasure, his one delight,
2250. though brief his respite. The barrow, new-ready,
2251. to strand and sea-waves stood anear,
2252. hard by the headland, hidden and closed;
2253. there laid within it his lordly heirlooms
2254. and heaped hoard of heavy gold
2255. that warden of rings. Few words he spake:
2256. "Now hold thou, earth, since heroes may not,
2257. what earls have owned! Lo, erst from thee
2258. brave men brought it! But battle-death seized
2259. and cruel killing my clansmen all,
2260. robbed them of life and a liegeman's joys.
2261. None have I left to lift the sword,
2262. or to cleanse the carven cup of price,
2263. beaker bright. My brave are gone.
2264. And the helmet hard, all haughty with gold,
2265. shall part from its plating. Polishers sleep
2266. who could brighten and burnish the battle-mask;
2267. and those weeds of war that were wont to brave
2268. over bicker of shields the bite of steel
2269. rust with their bearer. The ringed mail
2270. fares not far with famous chieftain,
2271. at side of hero! No harp's delight,
2272. no glee-wood's gladness! No good hawk now
2273. flies through the hall! Nor horses fleet
2274. stamp in the burgstead! Battle and death
2275. the flower of my race have reft away."
2276. Mournful of mood, thus he moaned his woe,
2277. alone, for them all, and unblithe wept
2278. by day and by night, till death's fell wave
2279. o'erwhelmed his heart. His hoard-of-bliss
2280. that old ill-doer open found,
2281. who, blazing at twilight the barrows haunteth,
2282. naked foe-dragon flying by night
2283. folded in fire: the folk of earth
2284. dread him sore. 'Tis his doom to seek
2285. hoard in the graves, and heathen gold
2286. to watch, many-wintered: nor wins he thereby!
2287. Powerful this plague-of-the-people thus
2288. held the house of the hoard in earth
2289. three hundred winters; till One aroused
2290. wrath in his breast, to the ruler bearing
2291. that costly cup, and the king implored
2292. for bond of peace. So the barrow was plundered,
2293. borne off was booty. His boon was granted
2294. that wretched man; and his ruler saw
2295. first time what was fashioned in far-off days.
2296. When the dragon awoke, new woe was kindled.
2297. O'er the stone he snuffed. The stark-heart found
2298. footprint of foe who so far had gone
2299. in his hidden craft by the creature's head.—
2300. So may the undoomed easily flee
2301. evils and exile, if only he gain
2302. the grace of The Wielder!—That warden of gold
2303. o'er the ground went seeking, greedy to find
2304. the man who wrought him such wrong in sleep.
2305. Savage and burning, the barrow he circled
2306. all without; nor was any there,
2307. none in the waste.... Yet war he desired,
2308. was eager for battle. The barrow he entered,
2309. sought the cup, and discovered soon
2310. that some one of mortals had searched his treasure,
2311. his lordly gold. The guardian waited
2312. ill-enduring till evening came;
2313. boiling with wrath was the barrow's keeper,
2314. and fain with flame the foe to pay
2315. for the dear cup's loss.—Now day was fled
2316. as the worm had wished. By its wall no more
2317. was it glad to bide, but burning flew
2318. folded in flame: a fearful beginning
2319. for sons of the soil; and soon it came,
2320. in the doom of their lord, to a dreadful end.
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2321. THEN the baleful fiend its fire belched out,
2322. and bright homes burned. The blaze stood high
2323. all landsfolk frighting. No living thing
2324. would that loathly one leave as aloft it flew.
2325. Wide was the dragon's warring seen,
2326. its fiendish fury far and near,
2327. as the grim destroyer those Geatish people
2328. hated and hounded. To hidden lair,
2329. to its hoard it hastened at hint of dawn.
2330. Folk of the land it had lapped in flame,
2331. with bale and brand. In its barrow it trusted,
2332. its battling and bulwarks: that boast was vain!
2333. To Beowulf then the bale was told
2334. quickly and truly: the king's own home,
2335. of buildings the best, in brand-waves melted,
2336. that gift-throne of Geats. To the good old man
2337. sad in heart, 'twas heaviest sorrow.
2338. The sage assumed that his sovran God
2339. he had angered, breaking ancient law,
2340. and embittered the Lord. His breast within
2341. with black thoughts welled, as his wont was never.
2342. The folk's own fastness that fiery dragon
2343. with flame had destroyed, and the stronghold all
2344. washed by waves; but the warlike king,
2345. prince of the Weders, plotted vengeance.
2346. Warriors'-bulwark, he bade them work
2347. all of iron—the earl's commander—
2348. a war-shield wondrous: well he knew
2349. that forest-wood against fire were worthless,
2350. linden could aid not.—Atheling brave,
2351. he was fated to finish this fleeting life,1
2352. his days on earth, and the dragon with him,
2353. though long it had watched o'er the wealth of the hoard!—
2354. Shame he reckoned it, sharer-of-rings,
2355. to follow the flyer-afar with a host,
2356. a broad-flung band; nor the battle feared he,
2357. nor deemed he dreadful the dragon's warring,
2358. its vigor and valor: ventures desperate
2359. he had passed a-plenty, and perils of war,
2360. contest-crash, since, conqueror proud,
2361. Hrothgar's hall he had wholly purged,
2362. and in grapple had killed the kin of Grendel,
2363. loathsome breed! Not least was that
2364. of hand-to-hand fights where Hygelac fell,
2365. when the ruler of Geats in rush of battle,
2366. lord of his folk, in the Frisian land,
2367. son of Hrethel, by sword-draughts died,
2368. by brands down-beaten. Thence Beowulf fled
2369. through strength of himself and his swimming power,
2370. though alone, and his arms were laden with thirty
2371. coats of mail, when he came to the sea!
2372. Nor yet might Hetwaras2 haughtily boast
2373. their craft of contest, who carried against him
2374. shields to the fight: but few escaped
2375. from strife with the hero to seek their homes!
2376. Then swam over ocean Ecgtheow's son
2377. lonely and sorrowful, seeking his land,
2378. where Hygd made him offer of hoard and realm,
2379. rings and royal-seat, reckoning naught
2380. the strength of her son to save their kingdom
2381. from hostile hordes, after Hygelac's death.
2382. No sooner for this could the stricken ones
2383. in any wise move that atheling's mind
2384. over young Heardred's head as lord
2385. and ruler of all the realm to be:
2386. yet the hero upheld him with helpful words,
2387. aided in honor, till, older grown,
2388. he wielded the Weder-Geats.—Wandering exiles
2389. sought him o'er seas, the sons of Ohtere,
2390. who had spurned the sway of the Scylfings'-helmet,
2391. the bravest and best that broke the rings,
2392. in Swedish land, of the sea-kings' line,
2393. haughty hero.3 Hence Heardred's end.
2394. For shelter he gave them, sword-death came,
2395. the blade's fell blow, to bairn of Hygelac;
2396. but the son of Ongentheow sought again
2397. house and home when Heardred fell,
2398. leaving Beowulf lord of Geats
2399. and gift-seat's master.—A good king he!
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2400. THE fall of his lord he was fain to requite
2401. in after days; and to Eadgils he proved
2402. friend to the friendless, and forces sent
2403. over the sea to the son of Ohtere,
2404. weapons and warriors: well repaid he
2405. those care-paths cold when the king he slew.1
2406. Thus safe through struggles the son of Ecgtheow
2407. had passed a plenty, through perils dire,
2408. with daring deeds, till this day was come
2409. that doomed him now with the dragon to strive.
2410. With comrades eleven the lord of Geats
2411. swollen in rage went seeking the dragon.
2412. He had heard whence all the harm arose
2413. and the killing of clansmen; that cup of price
2414. on the lap of the lord had been laid by the finder.
2415. In the throng was this one thirteenth man,
2416. starter of all the strife and ill,
2417. care-laden captive; cringing thence
2418. forced and reluctant, he led them on
2419. till he came in ken of that cavern-hall,
2420. the barrow delved near billowy surges,
2421. flood of ocean. Within 'twas full
2422. of wire-gold and jewels; a jealous warden,
2423. warrior trusty, the treasures held,
2424. lurked in his lair. Not light the task
2425. of entrance for any of earth-born men!
2426. Sat on the headland the hero king,
2427. spake words of hail to his hearth-companions,
2428. gold-friend of Geats. All gloomy his soul,
2429. wavering, death-bound. Wyrd full nigh
2430. stood ready to greet the gray-haired man,
2431. to seize his soul-hoard, sunder apart
2432. life and body. Not long would be
2433. the warrior's spirit enwound with flesh.
2434. Beowulf spake, the bairn of Ecgtheow:—
2435. "Through store of struggles I strove in youth,
2436. mighty feuds; I mind them all.
2437. I was seven years old when the sovran of rings,
2438. friend-of-his-folk, from my father took me,
2439. had me, and held me, Hrethel the king,
2440. with food and fee, faithful in kinship.
2441. Ne'er, while I lived there, he loathlier found me,
2442. bairn in the burg, than his birthright sons,
2443. Herebeald and Haethcyn and Hygelac mine.
2444. For the eldest of these, by unmeet chance,
2445. by kinsman's deed, was the death-bed strewn,
2446. when Haethcyn killed him with horny bow,
2447. his own dear liege laid low with an arrow,
2448. missed the mark and his mate shot down,
2449. one brother the other, with bloody shaft.
2450. A feeless fight,2 and a fearful sin,
2451. horror to Hrethel; yet, hard as it was,
2452. unavenged must the atheling die!
2453. Too awful it is for an aged man
2454. to bide and bear, that his bairn so young
2455. rides on the gallows. A rime he makes,
2456. sorrow-song for his son there hanging
2457. as rapture of ravens; no rescue now
2458. can come from the old, disabled man!
2459. Still is he minded, as morning breaks,
2460. of the heir gone elsewhere;3 another he hopes not
2461. he will bide to see his burg within
2462. as ward for his wealth, now the one has found
2463. doom of death that the deed incurred.
2464. Forlorn he looks on the lodge of his son,
2465. wine-hall waste and wind-swept chambers
2466. reft of revel. The rider sleepeth,
2467. the hero, far-hidden;4 no harp resounds,
2468. in the courts no wassail, as once was heard.
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2469. "THEN he goes to his chamber, a grief-song chants
2470. alone for his lost. Too large all seems,
2471. homestead and house. So the helmet-of-Weders
2472. hid in his heart for Herebeald
2473. waves of woe. No way could he take
2474. to avenge on the slayer slaughter so foul;
2475. nor e'en could he harass that hero at all
2476. with loathing deed, though he loved him not.
2477. And so for the sorrow his soul endured,
2478. men's gladness he gave up and God's light chose.
2479. Lands and cities he left his sons
2480. (as the wealthy do) when he went from earth.
2481. There was strife and struggle 'twixt Swede and Geat
2482. o'er the width of waters; war arose,
2483. hard battle-horror, when Hrethel died,
2484. and Ongentheow's offspring grew
2485. strife-keen, bold, nor brooked o'er the seas
2486. pact of peace, but pushed their hosts
2487. to harass in hatred by Hreosnabeorh.
2488. Men of my folk for that feud had vengeance,
2489. for woful war ('tis widely known),
2490. though one of them bought it with blood of his heart,
2491. a bargain hard: for Haethcyn proved
2492. fatal that fray, for the first-of-Geats.
2493. At morn, I heard, was the murderer killed
2494. by kinsman for kinsman,1 with clash of sword,
2495. when Ongentheow met Eofor there.
2496. Wide split the war-helm: wan he fell,
2497. hoary Scylfing; the hand that smote him
2498. of feud was mindful, nor flinched from the death-blow.
2499. —"For all that he2 gave me, my gleaming sword
2500. repaid him at war,—such power I wielded,—
2501. for lordly treasure: with land he entrusted me,
2502. homestead and house. He had no need
2503. from Swedish realm, or from Spear-Dane folk,
2504. or from men of the Gifths, to get him help,—
2505. some warrior worse for wage to buy!
2506. Ever I fought in the front of all,
2507. sole to the fore; and so shall I fight
2508. while I bide in life and this blade shall last
2509. that early and late hath loyal proved
2510. since for my doughtiness Daeghrefn fell,
2511. slain by my hand, the Hugas' champion.
2512. Nor fared he thence to the Frisian king
2513. with the booty back, and breast-adornments;
2514. but, slain in struggle, that standard-bearer
2515. fell, atheling brave. Not with blade was he slain,
2516. but his bones were broken by brawny gripe,
2517. his heart-waves stilled.—The sword-edge now,
2518. hard blade and my hand, for the hoard shall strive."
2519. Beowulf spake, and a battle-vow made
2520. his last of all: "I have lived through many
2521. wars in my youth; now once again,
2522. old folk-defender, feud will I seek,
2523. do doughty deeds, if the dark destroyer
2524. forth from his cavern come to fight me!"
2525. Then hailed he the helmeted heroes all,
2526. for the last time greeting his liegemen dear,
2527. comrades of war: "I should carry no weapon,
2528. no sword to the serpent, if sure I knew
2529. how, with such enemy, else my vows
2530. I could gain as I did in Grendel's day.
2531. But fire in this fight I must fear me now,
2532. and poisonous breath; so I bring with me
2533. breastplate and board.3 From the barrow's keeper
2534. no footbreadth flee I. One fight shall end
2535. our war by the wall, as Wyrd allots,
2536. all mankind's master. My mood is bold
2537. but forbears to boast o'er this battling-flyer.
2538. —Now abide by the barrow, ye breastplate-mailed,
2539. ye heroes in harness, which of us twain
2540. better from battle-rush bear his wounds.
2541. Wait ye the finish. The fight is not yours,
2542. nor meet for any but me alone
2543. to measure might with this monster here
2544. and play the hero. Hardily I
2545. shall win that wealth, or war shall seize,
2546. cruel killing, your king and lord!"
2547. Up stood then with shield the sturdy champion,
2548. stayed by the strength of his single manhood,
2549. and hardy 'neath helmet his harness bore
2550. under cleft of the cliffs: no coward's path!
2551. Soon spied by the wall that warrior chief,
2552. survivor of many a victory-field
2553. where foemen fought with furious clashings,
2554. an arch of stone; and within, a stream
2555. that broke from the barrow. The brooklet's wave
2556. was hot with fire. The hoard that way
2557. he never could hope unharmed to near,
2558. or endure those deeps,4 for the dragon's flame.
2559. Then let from his breast, for he burst with rage,
2560. the Weder-Geat prince a word outgo;
2561. stormed the stark-heart; stern went ringing
2562. and clear his cry 'neath the cliff-rocks gray.
2563. The hoard-guard heard a human voice;
2564. his rage was enkindled. No respite now
2565. for pact of peace! The poison-breath
2566. of that foul worm first came forth from the cave,
2567. hot reek-of-fight: the rocks resounded.
2568. Stout by the stone-way his shield he raised,
2569. lord of the Geats, against the loathed-one;
2570. while with courage keen that coiled foe
2571. came seeking strife. The sturdy king
2572. had drawn his sword, not dull of edge,
2573. heirloom old; and each of the two
2574. felt fear of his foe, though fierce their mood.
2575. Stoutly stood with his shield high-raised
2576. the warrior king, as the worm now coiled
2577. together amain: the mailed-one waited.
2578. Now, spire by spire, fast sped and glided
2579. that blazing serpent. The shield protected,
2580. soul and body a shorter while
2581. for the hero-king than his heart desired,
2582. could his will have wielded the welcome respite
2583. but once in his life! But Wyrd denied it,
2584. and victory's honors.—His arm he lifted
2585. lord of the Geats, the grim foe smote
2586. with atheling's heirloom. Its edge was turned
2587. brown blade, on the bone, and bit more feebly
2588. than its noble master had need of then
2589. in his baleful stress.—Then the barrow's keeper
2590. waxed full wild for that weighty blow,
2591. cast deadly flames; wide drove and far
2592. those vicious fires. No victor's glory
2593. the Geats' lord boasted; his brand had failed,
2594. naked in battle, as never it should,
2595. excellent iron!—'Twas no easy path
2596. that Ecgtheow's honored heir must tread
2597. over the plain to the place of the foe;
2598. for against his will he must win a home
2599. elsewhere far, as must all men, leaving
2600. this lapsing life!—Not long it was
2601. ere those champions grimly closed again.
2602. The hoard-guard was heartened; high heaved his breast
2603. once more; and by peril was pressed again,
2604. enfolded in flames, the folk-commander!
2605. Nor yet about him his band of comrades,
2606. sons of athelings, armed stood
2607. with warlike front: to the woods they bent them,
2608. their lives to save. But the soul of one
2609. with care was cumbered. Kinship true
2610. can never be marred in a noble mind!
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2611. WIGLAF his name was, Weohstan's son,
2612. linden-thane loved, the lord of Scylfings,
2613. Aelfhere's kinsman. His king he now saw
2614. with heat under helmet hard oppressed.
2615. He minded the prizes his prince had given him,
2616. wealthy seat of the Waegmunding line,
2617. and folk-rights that his father owned
2618. Not long he lingered. The linden yellow,
2619. his shield, he seized; the old sword he drew:—
2620. as heirloom of Eanmund earth-dwellers knew it,
2621. who was slain by the sword-edge, son of Ohtere,
2622. friendless exile, erst in fray
2623. killed by Weohstan, who won for his kin
2624. brown-bright helmet, breastplate ringed,
2625. old sword of Eotens, Onela's gift,
2626. weeds of war of the warrior-thane,
2627. battle-gear brave: though a brother's child
2628. had been felled, the feud was unfelt by Onela.1
2629. For winters this war-gear Weohstan kept,
2630. breastplate and board, till his bairn had grown
2631. earlship to earn as the old sire did:
2632. then he gave him, mid Geats, the gear of battle,
2633. portion huge, when he passed from life,
2634. fared aged forth. For the first time now
2635. with his leader-lord the liegeman young
2636. was bidden to share the shock of battle.
2637. Neither softened his soul, nor the sire's bequest
2638. weakened in war.2 So the worm found out
2639. when once in fight the foes had met!
2640. Wiglaf spake,—and his words were sage;
2641. sad in spirit, he said to his comrades:—
2642. "I remember the time, when mead we took,
2643. what promise we made to this prince of ours
2644. in the banquet-hall, to our breaker-of-rings,
2645. for gear of combat to give him requital,
2646. for hard-sword and helmet, if hap should bring
2647. stress of this sort! Himself who chose us
2648. from all his army to aid him now,
2649. urged us to glory, and gave these treasures,
2650. because he counted us keen with the spear
2651. and hardy 'neath helm, though this hero-work
2652. our leader hoped unhelped and alone
2653. to finish for us,—folk-defender
2654. who hath got him glory greater than all men
2655. for daring deeds! Now the day is come
2656. that our noble master has need of the might
2657. of warriors stout. Let us stride along
2658. the hero to help while the heat is about him
2659. glowing and grim! For God is my witness
2660. I am far more fain the fire should seize
2661. along with my lord these limbs of mine!3
2662. Unsuiting it seems our shields to bear
2663. homeward hence, save here we essay
2664. to fell the foe and defend the life
2665. of the Weders' lord. I wot 'twere shame
2666. on the law of our land if alone the king
2667. out of Geatish warriors woe endured
2668. and sank in the struggle! My sword and helmet,
2669. breastplate and board, for us both shall serve!"
2670. Through slaughter-reek strode he to succor his chieftain,
2671. his battle-helm bore, and brief words spake:—
2672. "Beowulf dearest, do all bravely,
2673. as in youthful days of yore thou vowedst
2674. that while life should last thou wouldst let no wise
2675. thy glory droop! Now, great in deeds,
2676. atheling steadfast, with all thy strength
2677. shield thy life! I will stand to help thee."
2678. At the words the worm came once again,
2679. murderous monster mad with rage,
2680. with fire-billows flaming, its foes to seek,
2681. the hated men. In heat-waves burned
2682. that board4 to the boss, and the breastplate failed
2683. to shelter at all the spear-thane young.
2684. Yet quickly under his kinsman's shield
2685. went eager the earl, since his own was now
2686. all burned by the blaze. The bold king again
2687. had mind of his glory: with might his glaive
2688. was driven into the dragon's head,—
2689. blow nerved by hate. But Naegling5 was shivered,
2690. broken in battle was Beowulf's sword,
2691. old and gray. 'Twas granted him not
2692. that ever the edge of iron at all
2693. could help him at strife: too strong was his hand,
2694. so the tale is told, and he tried too far
2695. with strength of stroke all swords he wielded,
2696. though sturdy their steel: they steaded him nought.
2697. Then for the third time thought on its feud
2698. that folk-destroyer, fire-dread dragon,
2699. and rushed on the hero, where room allowed,
2700. battle-grim, burning; its bitter teeth
2701. closed on his neck, and covered him
2702. with waves of blood from his breast that welled.
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2703. 'TWAS now, men say, in his sovran's need
2704. that the earl made known his noble strain,
2705. craft and keenness and courage enduring.
2706. Heedless of harm, though his hand was burned,
2707. hardy-hearted, he helped his kinsman.
2708. A little lower the loathsome beast
2709. he smote with sword; his steel drove in
2710. bright and burnished; that blaze began
2711. to lose and lessen. At last the king
2712. wielded his wits again, war-knife drew,
2713. a biting blade by his breastplate hanging,
2714. and the Weders'-helm smote that worm asunder,
2715. felled the foe, flung forth its life.
2716. So had they killed it, kinsmen both,
2717. athelings twain: thus an earl should be
2718. in danger's day!—Of deeds of valor
2719. this conqueror's-hour of the king was last,
2720. of his work in the world. The wound began,
2721. which that dragon-of-earth had erst inflicted,
2722. to swell and smart; and soon he found
2723. in his breast was boiling, baleful and deep,
2724. pain of poison. The prince walked on,
2725. wise in his thought, to the wall of rock;
2726. then sat, and stared at the structure of giants,
2727. where arch of stone and steadfast column
2728. upheld forever that hall in earth.
2729. Yet here must the hand of the henchman peerless
2730. lave with water his winsome lord,
2731. the king and conqueror covered with blood,
2732. with struggle spent, and unspan his helmet.
2733. Beowulf spake in spite of his hurt,
2734. his mortal wound; full well he knew
2735. his portion now was past and gone
2736. of earthly bliss, and all had fled
2737. of his file of days, and death was near:
2738. "I would fain bestow on son of mine
2739. this gear of war, were given me now
2740. that any heir should after me come
2741. of my proper blood. This people I ruled
2742. fifty winters. No folk-king was there,
2743. none at all, of the neighboring clans
2744. who war would wage me with 'warriors'-friends'1
2745. and threat me with horrors. At home I bided
2746. what fate might come, and I cared for mine own;
2747. feuds I sought not, nor falsely swore
2748. ever on oath. For all these things,
2749. though fatally wounded, fain am I!
2750. From the Ruler-of-Man no wrath shall seize me,
2751. when life from my frame must flee away,
2752. for killing of kinsmen! Now quickly go
2753. and gaze on that hoard 'neath the hoary rock,
2754. Wiglaf loved, now the worm lies low,
2755. sleeps, heart-sore, of his spoil bereaved.
2756. And fare in haste. I would fain behold
2757. the gorgeous heirlooms, golden store,
2758. have joy in the jewels and gems, lay down
2759. softlier for sight of this splendid hoard
2760. my life and the lordship I long have held."
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2761. I HAVE heard that swiftly the son of Weohstan
2762. at wish and word of his wounded king,—
2763. war-sick warrior,—woven mail-coat,
2764. battle-sark, bore 'neath the barrow's roof.
2765. Then the clansman keen, of conquest proud,
2766. passing the seat,1 saw store of jewels
2767. and glistening gold the ground along;
2768. by the wall were marvels, and many a vessel
2769. in the den of the dragon, the dawn-flier old:
2770. unburnished bowls of bygone men
2771. reft of richness; rusty helms
2772. of the olden age; and arm-rings many
2773. wondrously woven.—Such wealth of gold,
2774. booty from barrow, can burden with pride
2775. each human wight: let him hide it who will!—
2776. His glance too fell on a gold-wove banner
2777. high o'er the hoard, of handiwork noblest,
2778. brilliantly broidered; so bright its gleam,
2779. all the earth-floor he easily saw
2780. and viewed all these vessels. No vestige now
2781. was seen of the serpent: the sword had ta'en him.
2782. Then, I heard, the hill of its hoard was reft,
2783. old work of giants, by one alone;
2784. he burdened his bosom with beakers and plate
2785. at his own good will, and the ensign took,
2786. brightest of beacons.—The blade of his lord
2787. —its edge was iron—had injured deep
2788. one that guarded the golden hoard
2789. many a year and its murder-fire
2790. spread hot round the barrow in horror-billows
2791. at midnight hour, till it met its doom.
2792. Hasted the herald, the hoard so spurred him
2793. his track to retrace; he was troubled by doubt,
2794. high-souled hero, if haply he'd find
2795. alive, where he left him, the lord of Weders,
2796. weakening fast by the wall of the cave.
2797. So he carried the load. His lord and king
2798. he found all bleeding, famous chief
2799. at the lapse of life. The liegeman again
2800. plashed him with water, till point of word
2801. broke through the breast-hoard. Beowulf spake,
2802. sage and sad, as he stared at the gold.—
2803. "For the gold and treasure, to God my thanks,
2804. to the Wielder-of-Wonders, with words I say,
2805. for what I behold, to Heaven's Lord,
2806. for the grace that I give such gifts to my folk
2807. or ever the day of my death be run!
2808. Now I've bartered here for booty of treasure
2809. the last of my life, so look ye well
2810. to the needs of my land! No longer I tarry.
2811. A barrow bid ye the battle-fanned raise
2812. for my ashes. 'Twill shine by the shore of the flood,
2813. to folk of mine memorial fair
2814. on Hrones Headland high uplifted,
2815. that ocean-wanderers oft may hail
2816. Beowulf's Barrow, as back from far
2817. they drive their keels o'er the darkling wave."
2818. From his neck he unclasped the collar of gold,
2819. valorous king, to his vassal gave it
2820. with bright-gold helmet, breastplate, and ring,
2821. to the youthful thane: bade him use them in joy.
2822. "Thou art end and remnant of all our race
2823. the Waegmunding name. For Wyrd hath swept them,
2824. all my line, to the land of doom,
2825. earls in their glory: I after them go."
2826. This word was the last which the wise old man
2827. harbored in heart ere hot death-waves
2828. of balefire he chose. From his bosom fled
2829. his soul to seek the saints' reward.
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2830. IT was heavy hap for that hero young
2831. on his lord beloved to look and find him
2832. lying on earth with life at end,
2833. sorrowful sight. But the slayer too,
2834. awful earth-dragon, empty of breath,
2835. lay felled in fight, nor, fain of its treasure,
2836. could the writhing monster rule it more.
2837. For edges of iron had ended its days,
2838. hard and battle-sharp, hammers' leaving;1
2839. and that flier-afar had fallen to ground
2840. hushed by its hurt, its hoard all near,
2841. no longer lusty aloft to whirl
2842. at midnight, making its merriment seen,
2843. proud of its prizes: prone it sank
2844. by the handiwork of the hero-king.
2845. Forsooth among folk but few achieve,
2846. —though sturdy and strong, as stories tell me,
2847. and never so daring in deed of valor,—
2848. the perilous breath of a poison-foe
2849. to brave, and to rush on the ring-board hall,
2850. whenever his watch the warden keeps
2851. bold in the barrow. Beowulf paid
2852. the price of death for that precious hoard;
2853. and each of the foes had found the end
2854. of this fleeting life.
2855. Befell erelong
2856. that the laggards in war the wood had left,
2857. trothbreakers, cowards, ten together,
2858. fearing before to flourish a spear
2859. in the sore distress of their sovran lord.
2860. Now in their shame their shields they carried,
2861. armor of fight, where the old man lay;
2862. and they gazed on Wiglaf. Wearied he sat
2863. at his sovran's shoulder, shieldsman good,
2864. to wake him with water.2 Nowise it availed.
2865. Though well he wished it, in world no more
2866. could he barrier life for that leader-of-battles
2867. nor baffle the will of all-wielding God.
2868. Doom of the Lord was law o'er the deeds
2869. of every man, as it is to-day.
2870. Grim was the answer, easy to get,
2871. from the youth for those that had yielded to fear!
2872. Wiglaf spake, the son of Weohstan,—
2873. mournful he looked on those men unloved:—
2874. "Who sooth will speak, can say indeed
2875. that the ruler who gave you golden rings
2876. and the harness of war in which ye stand
2877. —for he at ale-bench often-times
2878. bestowed on hall-folk helm and breastplate,
2879. lord to liegemen, the likeliest gear
2880. which near of far he could find to give,—
2881. threw away and wasted these weeds of battle,
2882. on men who failed when the foemen came!
2883. Not at all could the king of his comrades-in-arms
2884. venture to vaunt, though the Victory-Wielder,
2885. God, gave him grace that he got revenge
2886. sole with his sword in stress and need.
2887. To rescue his life, 'twas little that I
2888. could serve him in struggle; yet shift I made
2889. (hopeless it seemed) to help my kinsman.
2890. Its strength ever waned, when with weapon I struck
2891. that fatal foe, and the fire less strongly
2892. flowed from its head.—Too few the heroes
2893. in throe of contest that thronged to our king!
2894. Now gift of treasure and girding of sword,
2895. joy of the house and home-delight
2896. shall fail your folk; his freehold-land
2897. every clansman within your kin
2898. shall lose and leave, when lords highborn
2899. hear afar of that flight of yours,
2900. a fameless deed. Yea, death is better
2901. for liegemen all than a life of shame!"
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2902. THAT battle-toil bade he at burg to announce,
2903. at the fort on the cliff, where, full of sorrow,
2904. all the morning earls had sat,
2905. daring shieldsmen, in doubt of twain:
2906. would they wail as dead, or welcome home,
2907. their lord beloved? Little1 kept back
2908. of the tidings new, but told them all,
2909. the herald that up the headland rode.—
2910. "Now the willing-giver to Weder folk
2911. in death-bed lies; the Lord of Geats
2912. on the slaughter-bed sleeps by the serpent's deed!
2913. And beside him is stretched that slayer-of-men
2914. with knife-wounds sick:2 no sword availed
2915. on the awesome thing in any wise
2916. to work a wound. There Wiglaf sitteth,
2917. Weohstan's bairn, by Beowulf's side,
2918. the living earl by the other dead,
2919. and heavy of heart a head-watch3 keeps
2920. o'er friend and foe.—Now our folk may look
2921. for waging of war when once unhidden
2922. to Frisian and Frank the fall of the king
2923. is spread afar.—The strife began
2924. when hot on the Hugas4 Hygelac fell
2925. and fared with his fleet to the Frisian land.
2926. Him there the Hetwaras humbled in war,
2927. plied with such prowess their power o'erwhelming
2928. that the bold-in-battle bowed beneath it
2929. and fell in fight. To his friends no wise
2930. could that earl give treasure! And ever since
2931. the Merowings' favor has failed us wholly.
2932. Nor aught expect I of peace and faith
2933. from Swedish folk. 'Twas spread afar
2934. how Ongentheow reft at Ravenswood
2935. Haethcyn Hrethling of hope and life,
2936. when the folk of Geats for the first time sought
2937. in wanton pride the Warlike-Scylfings.
2938. Soon the sage old sire5 of Ohtere,
2939. ancient and awful, gave answering blow;
2940. the sea-king6 he slew, and his spouse redeemed,
2941. his good wife rescued, though robbed of her gold,
2942. mother of Ohtere and Onela.
2943. Then he followed his foes, who fled before him
2944. sore beset and stole their way,
2945. bereft of a ruler, to Ravenswood.
2946. With his host he besieged there what swords had left,
2947. the weary and wounded; woes he threatened
2948. the whole night through to that hard-pressed throng:
2949. some with the morrow his sword should kill,
2950. some should go to the gallows-tree
2951. for rapture of ravens. But rescue came
2952. with dawn of day for those desperate men
2953. when they heard the horn of Hygelac sound,
2954. tones of his trumpet; the trusty king
2955. had followed their trail with faithful band.
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2956. "THE bloody swath of Swedes and Geats
2957. and the storm of their strife, were seen afar,
2958. how folk against folk the fight had wakened.
2959. The ancient king with his atheling band
2960. sought his citadel, sorrowing much:
2961. Ongentheow earl went up to his burg.
2962. He had tested Hygelac's hardihood,
2963. the proud one's prowess, would prove it no longer,
2964. defied no more those fighting-wanderers
2965. nor hoped from the seamen to save his hoard,
2966. his bairn and his bride: so he bent him again,
2967. old, to his earth-walls. Yet after him came
2968. with slaughter for Swedes the standards of Hygelac
2969. o'er peaceful plains in pride advancing,
2970. till Hrethelings fought in the fenced town.1
2971. Then Ongentheow with edge of sword,
2972. the hoary-bearded, was held at bay,
2973. and the folk-king there was forced to suffer
2974. Eofor's anger. In ire, at the king
2975. Wulf Wonreding with weapon struck;
2976. and the chieftain's blood, for that blow, in streams
2977. flowed 'neath his hair. No fear felt he,
2978. stout old Scylfing, but straightway repaid
2979. in better bargain that bitter stroke
2980. and faced his foe with fell intent.
2981. Nor swift enough was the son of Wonred
2982. answer to render the aged chief;
2983. too soon on his head the helm was cloven;
2984. blood-bedecked he bowed to earth,
2985. and fell adown; not doomed was he yet,
2986. and well he waxed, though the wound was sore.
2987. Then the hardy Hygelac-thane,2
2988. when his brother fell, with broad brand smote,
2989. giants' sword crashing through giants'-helm
2990. across the shield-wall: sank the king,
2991. his folk's old herdsman, fatally hurt.
2992. There were many to bind the brother's wounds
2993. and lift him, fast as fate allowed
2994. his people to wield the place-of-war.
2995. But Eofor took from Ongentheow,
2996. earl from other, the iron-breastplate,
2997. hard sword hilted, and helmet too,
2998. and the hoar-chief's harness to Hygelac carried,
2999. who took the trappings, and truly promised
3000. rich fee 'mid folk,—and fulfilled it so.
3001. For that grim strife gave the Geatish lord,
3002. Hrethel's offspring, when home he came,
3003. to Eofor and Wulf a wealth of treasure,
3004. Each of them had a hundred thousand3
3005. in land and linked rings; nor at less price reckoned
3006. mid-earth men such mighty deeds!
3007. And to Eofor he gave his only daughter
3008. in pledge of grace, the pride of his home.
3009. "Such is the feud, the foeman's rage,
3010. death-hate of men: so I deem it sure
3011. that the Swedish folk will seek us home
3012. for this fall of their friends, the fighting-Scylfings,
3013. when once they learn that our warrior leader
3014. lifeless lies, who land and hoard
3015. ever defended from all his foes,
3016. furthered his folk's weal, finished his course
3017. a hardy hero.—Now haste is best,
3018. that we go to gaze on our Geatish lord,
3019. and bear the bountiful breaker-of-rings
3020. to the funeral pyre. No fragments merely
3021. shall burn with the warrior. Wealth of jewels,
3022. gold untold and gained in terror,
3023. treasure at last with his life obtained,
3024. all of that booty the brands shall take,
3025. fire shall eat it. No earl must carry
3026. memorial jewel. No maiden fair
3027. shall wreathe her neck with noble ring:
3028. nay, sad in spirit and shorn of her gold,
3029. oft shall she pass o'er paths of exile
3030. now our lord all laughter has laid aside,
3031. all mirth and revel. Many a spear
3032. morning-cold shall be clasped amain,
3033. lifted aloft; nor shall lilt of harp
3034. those warriors wake; but the wan-hued raven,
3035. fain o'er the fallen, his feast shall praise
3036. and boast to the eagle how bravely he ate
3037. when he and the wolf were wasting the slain."
3038. So he told his sorrowful tidings,
3039. and little4 he lied, the loyal man
3040. of word or of work. The warriors rose;
3041. sad, they climbed to the Cliff-of-Eagles,
3042. went, welling with tears, the wonder to view.
3043. Found on the sand there, stretched at rest,
3044. their lifeless lord, who had lavished rings
3045. of old upon them. Ending-day
3046. had dawned on the doughty-one; death had seized
3047. in woful slaughter the Weders' king.
3048. There saw they, besides, the strangest being,
3049. loathsome, lying their leader near,
3050. prone on the field. The fiery dragon,
3051. fearful fiend, with flame was scorched.
3052. Reckoned by feet, it was fifty measures
3053. in length as it lay. Aloft erewhile
3054. it had revelled by night, and anon come back,
3055. seeking its den; now in death's sure clutch
3056. it had come to the end of its earth-hall joys.
3057. By it there stood the stoups and jars;
3058. dishes lay there, and dear-decked swords
3059. eaten with rust, as, on earth's lap resting,
3060. a thousand winters they waited there.
3061. For all that heritage huge, that gold
3062. of bygone men, was bound by a spell,5
3063. so the treasure-hall could be touched by none
3064. of human kind,—save that Heaven's King,
3065. God himself, might give whom he would,
3066. Helper of Heroes, the hoard to open,—
3067. even such a man as seemed to him meet.
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3068. A PERILOUS path, it proved, he1 trod
3069. who heinously hid, that hall within,
3070. wealth under wall! Its watcher had killed
3071. one of a few,2 and the feud was avenged
3072. in woful fashion. Wondrous seems it,
3073. what manner a man of might and valor
3074. oft ends his life, when the earl no longer
3075. in mead-hall may live with loving friends.
3076. So Beowulf, when that barrow's warden
3077. he sought, and the struggle; himself knew not
3078. in what wise he should wend from the world at last.
3079. For3 princes potent, who placed the gold,
3080. with a curse to doomsday covered it deep,
3081. so that marked with sin the man should be,
3082. hedged with horrors, in hell-bonds fast,
3083. racked with plagues, who should rob their hoard.
3084. Yet no greed for gold, but the grace of heaven,
3085. ever the king had kept in view.4
3086. Wiglaf spake, the son of Weohstan:—
3087. "At the mandate of one, oft warriors many
3088. sorrow must suffer; and so must we.
3089. The people's-shepherd showed not aught
3090. of care for our counsel, king beloved!
3091. That guardian of gold he should grapple not, urged we,
3092. but let him lie where he long had been
3093. in his earth-hall waiting the end of the world,
3094. the hest of heaven.—This hoard is ours
3095. but grievously gotten; too grim the fate
3096. which thither carried our king and lord.
3097. I was within there, and all I viewed,
3098. the chambered treasure, when chance allowed me
3099. (and my path was made in no pleasant wise)
3100. under the earth-wall. Eager, I seized
3101. such heap from the hoard as hands could bear
3102. and hurriedly carried it hither back
3103. to my liege and lord. Alive was he still,
3104. still wielding his wits. The wise old man
3105. spake much in his sorrow, and sent you greetings
3106. and bade that ye build, when he breathed no more,
3107. on the place of his balefire a barrow high,
3108. memorial mighty. Of men was he
3109. worthiest warrior wide earth o'er
3110. the while he had joy of his jewels and burg.
3111. Let us set out in haste now, the second time
3112. to see and search this store of treasure,
3113. these wall-hid wonders,—the way I show you,—
3114. where, gathered near, ye may gaze your fill
3115. at broad-gold and rings. Let the bier, soon made,
3116. be all in order when out we come,
3117. our king and captain to carry thither
3118. —man beloved—where long he shall bide
3119. safe in the shelter of sovran God."
3120. Then the bairn of Weohstan bade command,
3121. hardy chief, to heroes many
3122. that owned their homesteads, hither to bring
3123. firewood from far—o'er the folk they ruled—
3124. for the famed-one's funeral. " Fire shall devour
3125. and wan flames feed on the fearless warrior
3126. who oft stood stout in the iron-shower,
3127. when, sped from the string, a storm of arrows
3128. shot o'er the shield-wall: the shaft held firm,
3129. featly feathered, followed the barb."
3130. And now the sage young son of Weohstan
3131. seven chose of the chieftain's thanes,
3132. the best he found that band within,
3133. and went with these warriors, one of eight,
3134. under hostile roof. In hand one bore
3135. a lighted torch and led the way.
3136. No lots they cast for keeping the hoard
3137. when once the warriors saw it in hall,
3138. altogether without a guardian,
3139. lying there lost. And little they mourned
3140. when they had hastily haled it out,
3141. dear-bought treasure! The dragon they cast,
3142. the worm, o'er the wall for the wave to take,
3143. and surges swallowed that shepherd of gems.
3144. Then the woven gold on a wain was laden—
3145. countless quite!—and the king was borne,
3146. hoary hero, to Hrones-Ness.
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3147. THEN fashioned for him the folk of Geats
3148. firm on the earth a funeral-pile,
3149. and hung it with helmets and harness of war
3150. and breastplates bright, as the boon he asked;
3151. and they laid amid it the mighty chieftain,
3152. heroes mourning their master dear.
3153. Then on the hill that hugest of balefires
3154. the warriors wakened. Wood-smoke rose
3155. black over blaze, and blent was the roar
3156. of flame with weeping (the wind was still),
3157. till the fire had broken the frame of bones,
3158. hot at the heart. In heavy mood
3159. their misery moaned they, their master's death.
3160. Wailing her woe, the widow1 old,
3161. her hair upbound, for Beowulf's death
3162. sung in her sorrow, and said full oft
3163. she dreaded the doleful days to come,
3164. deaths enow, and doom of battle,
3165. and shame.—The smoke by the sky was devoured.
3166. The folk of the Weders fashioned there
3167. on the headland a barrow broad and high,
3168. by ocean-farers far descried:
3169. in ten days' time their toil had raised it,
3170. the battle-brave's beacon. Round brands of the pyre
3171. a wall they built, the worthiest ever
3172. that wit could prompt in their wisest men.
3173. They placed in the barrow that precious booty,
3174. the rounds and the rings they had reft erewhile,
3175. hardy heroes, from hoard in cave,—
3176. trusting the ground with treasure of earls,
3177. gold in the earth, where ever it lies
3178. useless to men as of yore it was.
3179. Then about that barrow the battle-keen rode,
3180. atheling-born, a band of twelve,
3181. lament to make, to mourn their king,
3182. chant their dirge, and their chieftain honor.
3183. They praised his earlship, his acts of prowess
3184. worthily witnessed: and well it is
3185. that men their master-friend mightily laud,
3186. heartily love, when hence he goes
3187. from life in the body forlorn away.
3188. Thus made their mourning the men of Geatland,
3189. for their hero's passing his hearth-companions:
3190. quoth that of all the kings of earth,
3191. of men he was mildest and most beloved,
3192. to his kin the kindest, keenest for praise.
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Last Revised: Friday, 19 September 2007
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